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After the viking rout, he with a few companions crashed into the shield wall of Brian and sliced the top part of head off killing the king. He was taken by Brians bodyguard and executed with his men. The small series made up of the Norman and English medieval knights is probably my favourite set; well illustrated and interesting as light reading.

Norman knight was also the first book I got, I pestered my parents for it at the grand old age of 10, seduced by the pictures of knights and the promise of a decent read. I have to be honest, apart from malta , christa hook is really bad. I guess we will have to agree to disagree about Mcbride, who is 73 by the way and puts everyone else in the osprey series to shame in my view. But each to his own i guess. As for his detail lacking? Christina Hook is either quite good or very bad; she swaps between them seemingly randomly.

Agree to disagree, good idea - art is subjective, even when historical accuracy is at stake. A really good book is some of Tim newarks books with Mcbride from concord publishing. The barbarians and Warlords books really show blood and guts. Its his best work truely. I found out about the Osprey books only recently. My humble collection. Anyone knows any books on this? Good pics but the artists old rick schollins is dead now.

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He was damn fine artist. I added two more yesterday to my list My collection grows quite rapidly as a store that tries to have the all Osprey books in stock at all times is right on the route between university and the station On a seperate note, can we make this a sticky thread? As that is one of the more frequently asked questions Good idea about pinning the thread. I might pick up Ancient Greeks Elite title on Friday if my local bookshop still has it.

I think the author was putting the tartars in that bracket who were repulsed with the Lithuanians at the start of the fight but made the decisive strike near the end of the battle. It takes about a week when they have it instock, if not then a about 2 weeks. From amazon. These times are usually with the free postage and packing, I wiat until there are enough interesting books to qualify for that.

I get most of my books from amazon these days, far cheaper and unlike the bookshops in town they actually have good books. I ordered from Osprey once; I got one book free becasue of some offer or other. It took about 2 weeks for the books to arrive, they came in two batches aand if I remember correctly one book took about 3 weeks. I want to pick up those two as well. Im looking for some recommendations I wanted to pick up a few of these books dealing with late Roman and Byzantine empires. Just started my collection today, with 3, as a birthday present from my youngest. I just got ancient armies by tim newark and angus mcbride of concord publishing.

Are all those any good? Does this hold information of the Balkan Celts and the Galatians? Especially the latter sound interesting. Is there a book with info on these pretty much forgotten branches of the Celtic civilization? This is published by Montlight Publications and is only available at Border bookshops between England and Scotland. It features many new Angus McBride plates. Also Osprey have updated their coming soon section with a preview of two of the plates from the Mounted Archers of the Steppe book. Hey BKB, which onei s that picture of the samurai fighting the Mongols from?

Alos please someone post one of Mughal India. Osprey the samurai, get it, because that picture is bigger than the one i posted and the book itself is full of good info. Words cannot comprehend how good they are you can see a number of the plates in this thread. The plates range from superb army pictures - Rome in Gaul, Teutoberg Forest, Adrianople, beseiging a Judean city to other activities - Roman Legionnaries preparing to march, at camp, building a fort, a doctor treating a wounded officer and more.

Words cannot comprehend how good they are Have they got a website or something with a list of titles? Adebooks www. Did you get that plate from the internet or did you scan the pic? I know that pic is from germanic warrior. Are the other pics any good in the book? Ah got it. Looks like old Angus on top form again.

I just ordered Kawankajima in the campaign series. It covers all five battles and I think it should be a good read. Reynolds does the painting. Anyone knows this book? Saw it, didnt buy it though. I got Ninja instead. Reynolds paints that one too. They were packed with information, and the line drawings were well executed with detailed descriptions including info on colours etc the books were, after all aimed at miniature gamers. Available from September at Osprey publishing My one complaint about most of these illustrators is the scale of the bows Interrestingly, nobody of you mentions Peter Connolly.

Although the Books he did were not realy for history buffs, as the books are more childrens books , but the illustrations inside are simply beautifull. He did books on ancient rome and ancient greece. Also dealing with the Jerusalem at the time of christ and the Trojan War. His research has opened new doors, especially on the capabilities of ancient cavalry. I've been a fan of his ever since I found his Roman Legionary; and Roman cavalryman on a shelf in my local library when I was about 8. Good thing my parents thought history was good for me!

Yeah, I stumbled across Connollys Roman warrior and cavalryman in my local library, in the childrens department. Sadly the only books still available to be bought in germany are the Ancient Greeks and Ancient Romans. I hated the pages with rusty helmets and swords and loved those with colored plates when i was young, but now i really enjoy his descriptions and the knowlegde behind. If you like those style of pics boys get the concord books, honestly you will love them. In the ancient armies book nearly every pic is great and will leave you smiling i know i had one.

By the way, the artist above is good. Yes, there are lots of books that cover the renaissance. I think you are interested in the italian wars ? Look for yourself. Also try to lay your hands on some of the campaign books of Pavia and Fornovo, really good info there and the armies of medieval Burgundy, German medieval armies and The Landsnechks sp. I love Connolly, and I'm just being introduced to the Osprey books more.

On Amazon. Due to not being able to immediately ship a couple of them, I won't get them for about a month:. I can also see the major help it will give unit creators for MOD projects!

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That's it for now:] -Gregory-. I just recently came into possession of Osprey books, thanks to this thread!!!! What I got is Essential Histories: Punic Wars Warrior: Ninja , Japanese Warrior Monks Elite: Vikings Campaign: Kawanakajima To be honest the warrior titles dissapoints me a little, only about 60 pages that is including various plates, pictures and other material.

However, the Punic Wars surpirsed me pleasently because I knew quite a lot about the punic wars beforehand, so I purchased it as a 'test' to see how accurate it was. One thing I didn't like though was the author began expressing his political views in the conclusion. That was ok because he used to it show that history was still relevant, however, when he bagan to express political opinions I sort of lost it for him.

What are the Ninja and Japanese Warrior Monk books like? I've only got three Warrior books currently but I find them better value than the Men-at-arms series, which are just 40 pages long. Well, as I said they are only around pages which I think is quite litte, compared to campaign books with at least pages. However, the ninja book is quite funny, and informative. It talks most about which ninja operations took place and discussing certain ninja tactics. And since it is Turnbull who wrote it makes a lot of work to de-mythologize a word?

All the effort to make ninja down to earth is annoying since it is common knowledge, at least if you have an interrest. It is useful, however, as it takes the ninja history from the earliest and track it through time, going in-depth with famous ninja operations. All these operations are taken directly from war-journals which mostly is second hand sources, so there are a lot of funny anecdotes, but it is very informative as well. Also the ninja gear is throughly discussed and generally Im more informed about ninjas than before, however, not as much as I would like to be.

I did not read the Monks yet, but I suspect it is the same since Turnbull wrote that as well. But those books DO seem to aim at younger audiences, so I'm sure half of the 'kids' that actually pick it up think they're gonna' see the history of the Teenage Mutant Ninja Tutles! Could someone help me with that? Yeah, on Amazon it's a bit hard to diffrentrate the kinds of books, not to mention I always get sprinled in there books about birds.

Hmmm, what are the Essential Histories books like? Do they include plates? Essential histories are red covered, usually campaigns and normally a picture on the cover with the subject in question not a colour plate like in the men at arms, Elite series. Essentials are good in providing background but have no plates or original artwork at all. They both seem pretty cool. Right, I was really bored, so finally decided to post my list, and provide a some comments next to each one.

Essential Histories: Byzantium at War Nice, and goes into detail far more into the soldiers life than the two Men at Arms. I wish it would detail the mercanries a bit more though. Ottamon Empire Good, and tends to stay in the more interresting, earlier periods.

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However, they don't detial the Jannisaries enough for my tastes. Wars of Alexander the Great :It's good, but doesn't really go into the troops as much as the other, and tends to stay on the actual battles, and the before and after pictures.

Armies of the Ottoman Turks, 1300-1774 (Men at Arms Series, 140)

The Crusades: I really like this one. It has interesting portraits of both sides, and explains the impact on history of the Crusades. It does a good job of trying to debunk some of the rumors of the Mongols. Campaign: Alexander Conquest of the Persian Empire: My only campaign, so I don't really have anything to compare it to. But it has good info and decent pics of both Alexander's army and the Persians.

Nice tactic layout, to. Men at Arms: Army of Alexander the Great: Okay, but it doesn't really discribe the diffrent cavalry and infantry units that well, and the pics suffer from being interpratitions of the Alexander Sarcophagous, as many they don't really know what the units are. No good pikemen pics, either. Byzantine Armies Despite being an interesting period, McBride doesn't do his best, the pictures are a bit off, and the backgrounds are a dull white.

Byzantine Armies Far better pictures than the first, and does a better job of detailing the mercenaries. Brilliant pics and info, and has lovely British Chariot picture. It is a bit disconcerting to see the nekkid barbarians with a shield placed strategically to cover his manliness. Romes Enemies Parthians and Sassanid Persians: Suffers from being split into two different timeperiods, as the Parthians are more interesting. Pics tend to be of the later periods, and again has a white background.

It does have a sweet pic of an elephant though. Has a bit much non-combatant shots, however. Armies of Medieval Russia A really nice book wich does a good job of the transition from the Rus to the city states. Has some sweet pics. Armies of Medieval Russia Good, but not my favorite time period, as I prefer the nomadic steppe tactics to the western styles.

Again, nice plates. Tries to squeeze in to much info a little space. Mongol Warrior: Good, and has nice info of the lifestyle of the different Mongol types. Elite: Attila and the Nomad hordes: Probably my favorite, though it has really nothing to do with Attila, and more with the nomads. Lovely pictures, and awesome info. Of course the best place in my opinion to buy Osprey books is Osprey themselves at their website.

You also get better deals there. With Amazon the availability of some Osprey books runs into weeks. If it's not listed, I know I can see the colors, that's for sure! Unfortunatly, the American prices are so much higher than the English. So I find it easier to get off amazon, despite the wait, or at a bookstore.

Also I know where CA got the idea of Berserkers in a 12 unit from now ;. Although I must note that I find the Sassanid Persians far more interesting. It could've used a lot more combat plates though. Still, the last plate of the late Sassanid clibanarius is so well-done that it's one of my fave pics. The Age of Tamerlane is quite an interesting book, it covers everything about Timur and his army, except one important thing: a detailed description of his campaigns. That's quite a miss, since that's probably the most interesting part. The plates are great, almost all of them have a backdrop and are very well done.

Anyways, I really like Germanic Warrior from the Warrior series. It's my favorite book up until now, and gives a really good picture of the warriors of that tumultuous period, their arms and armor, and their tactics. To top that, it has a description of the events of the period as well. It's really well written and the plates are absolutely superb, and it contains my favorite plate up until now, namely the one of the Ostrogoth Valaris challenging any oncomer to single combat. Simply superb. It even has a plate of one of my ancestors, a Frank, and his equipment!

Maybe with the collection of Roman legion books called Caesar's Legions. Thanks for the response, Wiz. I just got Viking Elite, and I agree with Sjakihata that it's very good. I've just bought my first one, from the Campaign series: Kursk The Tide Turns in the East I intend to build on this humble beginning at a rate of one per week or two. I wish all the titles that I wanted were available for me to purchase them 1 or 2 a week.

Most of the stuff in my area from Osprey pertains to the American Civil War which is interesting enough but not my area of interest. I am going to be adding quite a few titles to my collection this Holiday season so I will update my original list then. I've got the same problem. Pretty much all Civil War and WW2 in my bookstores. Got a few new books: Spanish invasion of mexico Pictish warrior celtic warrior Highland clansman great pictures by mcbride but the author is shite.

What series are those last 3 from. I am not familiar with those titles and I didn't see them on the Osprey website yesterday when I was there. The highland one is in the warrior series, as are the other two. By the way, wayne reynolds picture of the pictish spear wall against the strathclyde horse is great, can't wait for his templar osprey book. I've been saving up and am planning a bumper Osprey buy soon. I plan to have most McBride books after this, bar his modern ones. Hey guys So far, my Osprey collection is I was thinking about getting some books about ancient greece first, but I don't know which one exactly.

I know there are many books related to this topic, so does anyone know the which one is the best? There is a good book by osprey called the greeks in the elite series. Its a very good book and the colour plates by angus mcbride are quite fantastic. Loads of books on Byzantium, also one on the thracians looks great planning to get that one. Well, I'll have to order it from the bookshop I found. Outmaneuvered by the Turkish sultan, Alp Arslan, Romanus was forced to give battle with only half his troops near Manzikert.

By the end of that fateful day much of the Byzantine army was dead, the rest scattered in flight and the Emperor himself a captive. As a result, the Anatolian heart was torn out of the empire and it was critically weakened, while Turkish power expanded rapidly, eventually leading to Byzantine appeals for help from Western Europe, prompting the First Crusade. This book sets the battle in the context of the military history of the Byzantine Empire and the Islamic World Arab and Seljuk Turkish up to the pivotal engagement at Manzikert in , with special emphasis on the origins, course and outcome of this battle.

The composition, weapons and tactics of the very different opposing armies are analyzed. The final chapter is dedicated to assessing the impact of Manzikert on the Byzantine Empire's strategic position in Anatolia and to the battle's role as a causus belli for the Crusades. Dozens of maps and battle diagrams support the clear text. It examines the structure and composition of armies and the social networks and hierarchies which underpinned them: what sort of Welshmen became soldiers?

How was Welsh society organized for war? What impact did wider political considerations have upon Welshmen in England's armies? These questions are answered using both well-known sources, such as the financial records of the English crown, and others less familiar, including the records of local administration and the large surviving corpus of Welsh-language poetry.

Les Chevaliers Teutoniques includes an extensive and rich collection of illustrations covering documents, weaponry, and castles of the Order, along with maps and magnificent contemporary color photos of several of the castles, particularly Marienburg. The great battle has two names for a reason. The place where the battle took place is called 'hill of the firs' Tannenberg in German language , but around it there was a forest of low trees, 'the green forest' in German dialect Grunwald and a village called Grunfeld.

The battle was described in a 'Chronica Conflictus' contained in 'Rerum scriptores Prussicarum' and 'Historiae Poloniae' by the Polish priest Jan Dlugosz, whose father directly participated in the battle, and who interviewed many other known survivors. At the beginning of the battle, the Knights were able to destroy the right of the Lithuanians, but later had to fall back.

When their brave Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen was killed in the center of the mixture, then the battle was finally lost. The Teutonic lost at least 20, soldiers and knights including the Grand Commander Conrad von Liechtenstein, Marshal Friedrich von Wallenrod, and many commanders and officers, while the Polish-Lithuanian army suffered 13, casualties dead and wounded.

The ultimate goal was the headquarters of the Grand Master of the Castle Marienburg Malbork in Polish and this fortress was taken on July 25, 16 days after the battle of Tannenberg. Italian text, but English captions to images. All color plates have full English translations. In the following years, Charles was defeated three times on the battlefield: Grandson, Morat, and Nancy -- and in the last battle being killed.

These wars represent the end of the Duchy of Burgundy, as all its territories and those belonging to it soon became part of France, while the Burgundian possessions in the Netherlands and in the Franche-Comte were inherited by the daughter of Charles I, Mary of Burgundy. In the end, marriage with Maximilian transmitted the territories to the House of the Habsburgs.

Includes color plates. The stakes were sovereignty over the Duchy of Milan, the richest state of the Italian peninsula, claimed by France to ancient dynastic rights. This epic battle, defined by an eyewitness, 'not men but giants,' marked the end of Lombardy Sforza and forced Switzerland, until then an emerging power on the European stage, to retire for good in the field of neutrality. The imperial vanguard included Saracens and horsemen, which were the first units to attack the Lombard units, followed by the infantry.

Taken by surprise, the Milanese and Piacentines were unable to form a defense line, and fled to Cortenuova. When Frederick and his main force reached the battlefield, it was scattered with knights, slain or wounded and his passage blocked by riderless horses. At Cortenuova, other Milanese and troops from Alessandria had amassed around their Carroccio, where the Lombards fought valiantly under the Saracen arrows and the Teutonic charges. A column of men from Milanese noble families, despite the arrival of other Bergamo troops, was able to protect the rest of the army's retreat to Cortenuova till night.

To keep the army's morale as high as possible, Frederick ordered his troop to sleep with their armors on, and to attack at the first lights of dawn. On the other side, the podesta of Milan, recognizing that the troops could not withstand another battle, ordered to abandon the town together with the Carroccio and the rest of the baggage. On the dawn of 28 November the imperial attacked the hastily retreating Lombards, who fell without nearly no resistance. Many drowned in the Oglio, which was in spate. At the end, some 5, Lombards were captured, casualties amounting to some other thousands killed.

The Milanese alone lost 2, soldiers. Account of Order [in Italian], but photos and plates have English captions. The Order of the Golden Fleece was established January 10, , by Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, in celebration of the prosperous and wealthy domains united in his person that ran from Flanders to Switzerland. It is restricted to a limited number of knights, initially 24 but increased to 30 in , and 50 in , plus the sovereign. It received further privileges unusual to any order of knighthood: the sovereign undertook to consult the order before going to war; all disputes between the knights were to be settled by the order; at each chapter the deeds of each knight were held in review, and punishments and admonitions were dealt out to offenders, and to this the sovereign was expressly subject; the knights could claim as of right to be tried by their fellows on charges of rebellion, heresy and treason, and Charles V conferred on the order exclusive jurisdiction over all crimes committed by the knights; the arrest of the offender had to be by warrant signed by at least six knights, and during the process of charge and trial he remained not in prison but in the gentle custody of his fellow knights.

The order, conceived in an ecclesiastical spirit in which mass and obsequies were prominent and the knights were seated in choirstalls like canons, was explicitly denied to 'heretics,' and so became an exclusively Catholic award during the Reformation. Catharism was a Christian movement that spread shortly after the year and especially between and , in southern Europe, the Balkans, Italy and France.

It was especially strong in the Languedoc, mainly in the region of Albi which originated from the name Albigensian , where the lords of Provence and the Count of Toulouse and also some clergymen as bishops of Toulouse and Carcassonne and the archbishop of Narbonne allowed the Cathars to preach towards the end of the 12th century.

ULtimately, the crusade prevailed and began the long decline of the culture and Occitan language all over the south of France. What makes this book different from previous studies emphasising the great battles is its use of less familiar evidence, such as administrative records and landscape archaeology, to gain a truer picture of the realities of medieval warfare.

From a general review of battle tactics, the book turns to examine at points enlisting computer analysis a number of issues: the composition of the English army, the management of affairs in Aquitaine, the response in England at large to the war and the consequent propaganda and hardship, and the impact of warfare on local communities.

Close study of surviving artefacts - weapons, fortifications - also allows realistic assessments of military and naval experiences. Research has advanced since then, changing our perception of the medieval military mind and shining fresh light on the key characters involved in the conquest. This gives the Welsh and English perspectives on the war and on the brutal, mistrustful, and ruthless personal motives that drove events.

Set in the context of Welsh warfare and society from the end of Rome to the time of Edward's opening campaign in the late thirteenth century. The narrative describes in vivid detail the military history of the conflict, the sequence of campaigns, Welsh resistance, Edward's castle building and English colonization, and the cost of the struggle to the Welsh and the English - and the uneasy peace that followed.

Redfroe Jr. Index, chapter notes, appendix. Here Richard III suffered what, thanks to Shakespeare, is arguably the most memorable death of any English king, bringing an end to the Wars of the Roses and heralding the Tudor era. But it was also England's most famous lost battlefield. To find and explore the site, the authors led an intensive program of research, using a wide range of academic disciplines. Bosworth A battlefield rediscovered is the result.

Techniques included documentary analysis, landscape archaeology, place name study, and, most important, metal detecting survey. Using the resulting evidence the book explores the battle and battlefield - from the composition of the armies to the terrain in which the battle was fought. They may even have found the very place where Richard fell. Yet most important is the evidence for early gunpowder weapons.

Using cutting edge scientific research and ballistic experiments the authors reveal, for the first time, how to read the evidence on medieval lead round shot, just as a ballistic examiner reveals the story of a modern bullet. Bosworth provides a fascinating and intricately researched new perspective on the event which, perhaps more than any other, marked the transition between medieval and early modern England.

It features the information from 17 marvelous tables realized by the Italian artist Giovanni Garuti. Every table is equipped with text that describes the history of the noble and illustrates the uniforms. Also included are tables with heraldic shields of the various factions and families. The appendix contains 12 plates of knights, ladies, and soldiers of the 16th century.

Volume 1 deals offers an in-depth look at medieval military architecture and covers the main castles, from Chateau Gaillard to Castel de Coucy. The English controlled the territory to the north of the Loire, but had no control of regions beyond the river. During the summer, Bedford decided to eliminate his enemy and went to besiege Orleans. From October to May , fierce fighting continued around the town.

The situation seemed to be lost for the besieged until the arrival of a young peasant girl named Joan. The exploits of the Maid of Orleans led to the making of her legend. Inspired by her, the French rekindled their taste for victory and went from one success to another until the decisive battle at Patay. A detailed, animated, and richly illustrated history. The Muslim kingdoms coalesced under a variety of North African empires such as the Almoravids and Almohads, but Christian kingdoms thwarted expansion and began the reconquest process.

For the last years this, the most famous battle of the Wars of the Roses, has excited passionate interest and continuing controversy. The latest historical evidence is assessed, including the recent discovery of Richard III's body in Leicester and the fascinating archaeological work that has been carried out on the battlefield. These undercover operations were aimed chiefly against key individuals, mostly royalty or the leaders of the opposing army, and against key fortified places, including bridges, mills and dams. However, because of their clandestine nature, these deeds of 'derring-do' have not been studied in any detail, a major gap which this book fills.

It surveys a wide variety of special operations, from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. It then analyzes in greater depth six select and exciting operations: the betrayal of Antioch in ; the attempt to rescue King Baldwin II from the dungeon of Khartpert in ; the assassination of Conrad of Montferrat in ; the attempt to storm Calais in ; the 'dirty war' waged by the rulers of France and Burgundy in the s and s; and the demolition of the flour mill of Auriol in He loyally served first King John and then the young Henry III and played a crucial role in saving the Plantagenet dynasty when it was at its most vulnerable.

During King John's disastrous wars in France, Hubert held Chinon castle against the besieging French for a whole year. He remained loyal when the Barons rebelled against John and, when they invited French invaders to intervene, Hubert successfully held Dover Castle for the king against a siege led by the French Prince Louis.

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After John's death, he held it for the new king, 9-year old Henry, against a renewed siege. In August he struck the final blow against the French invasion, which still held London, when he defeated a powerful fleet carrying French reinforcements at the naval Battle of Sandwich. He eventually lost favor due to the machinations of his rivals and narrowly avoided execution but was eventually reconciled with his king and able to die a peaceful death. Incredibly, this is the first full-length biography of this remarkable man.

Organization, tactics, dress, and weapons. Their single-minded and aggressive leadership, and the organization, discipline and fighting qualities of their armies, marked them out from their Viking forebears and from many of the armed forces that stood against them. This traces the course of their conquests, focusing on them as individual commanders and on their achievements on the battlefield. The military context of their campaigns, and the conditions of warfare in France and England, in southern Italy and Sicily, and in the Near East, are vividly described, as are their decisive operations and sieges - among them Hastings, Bremule, Tinchebrai, Civitate, Misilmeri, Dyrrhachium, and the Siege of Antioch.

Includes 50 color illustrations. Shows how it were funded and supplied, how it organized its forces on campaign and on the battlefield and the strategies and tactics they employed in the various theaters of warfare in which they fought. Templar leadership, command and control are examined, and sections cover their battles and campaigns, fortifications and castles.

He shows siege tactics in action through real-life case studies of famous sieges that changed the course of history in medieval Europe and the Holy Land. His stimulating and accessible study will be fascinating. He united warring Muslim lands, reconquered the bulk of Crusader states, and faced the Richard the Lion Heart, king of England, in one of the most famous confrontations in medieval warfare.

Geoffrey Hindley's sympathetic and highly readable study of the life and times of this remarkable, many-sided man, who dominated the Middle East in his day, gives a fascinating insight into his achievements and into the Muslim world of his contemporaries. Edward III's capture of Calais in was of crucial importance for the English, and the failure of the English siege of Orleans in was a turning point for the French after the disaster of Agincourt.

Throughout the war, sieges were a major weapon in the strategic armories of both sides, and Peter Hoskins's perceptive and graphic study is a fascinating analysis of them. He describes the difficulties faced by besieger and besieged, examines the logistics and resource implications of sieges, and provides a comparative assessment of siege warfare alongside set-piece battles and the English strategy of chevauchees. Key sieges are reconstructed in vivid detail, other sieges are summarized, and the book is fully illustrated with photographs and plans. They were simultaneously famed as warriors, noted for their religious devotion, and celebrated as fearless travelers.

In the Middle Ages few activities offered a better conduit to combine warfare, religiosity, and movement than crusading and pilgrimage. However, while scholarship is abundant on many facets of the Norman world, it is a surprise that the Norman relationship with crusading and pilgrimage, so central in many ways to Norman identity, has hitherto not received extensive treatment. The collection here seeks to fill this gap.

It aims to identify what was unique or different about the Normans and their relationship with crusading and pilgrimage, as well as how and why crusade and pilgrimage were important to the Normans. Particular focus is given to Norman participation in the First Crusade, to Norman interaction in later crusading initiatives, to the significance of pilgrimage in diverse parts of the Norman world, and finally to the ways in which crusading and pilgrimage were recorded in Norman narrative.

Ultimately, this volume aims to assess, in some cases to confirm, and in others to revise the established paradigm of the Normans as crusaders par excellence and as opportunists who used religion to serve other agendas. Yet behind the popular image lies a world of the knight that is both more complex and more fascinating. This book uncovers the myths to reveal the true knight warrior, examining his equipment, arms, and armour, his steed, his 'career path', and of course his 'chivalric code.

Lavishly illustrated and drawing on first-hand accounts from the knights themselves, this book reveals the world of the knight in all his glory. Only the survival of Tyre subsequently allowed them to regain the territories during the Third Crusade in which Philippe Auguste and above all Richard I the Lionheart, distinguished themselves. Despite their initial successes, those who inherited the gains achieved in were indeed now lost. This work details the causes, circumstances, and consequences of the most terrible defeat encountered during the Crusades.

Warrior culture, clan warfare, overlords and local kingdoms, their relationship with the sea and ships, raiding, harrying, and assimilation are all covered in the book. Through such disasters, however, emerged great feats of human endurance. Not only did the English population recover from starvation and disease, but thousands of the kingdom's subjects went on to defeat the Scots and the French in several notable battles.

Yet what has been underemphasized in this historical narrative is the role played by men of more humble origins, none more so than the medieval mariner. This is unfortunate because during the 14th century, the manpower and ships provided by the English merchant fleet underpinned every military expedition. The aim of this book is to address this gap. Its fresh approach to the sources allows the enormous contribution of the English merchant fleet to the wars conducted by Edward II and Edward III to be revealed; the author also explores the complex administrative process of raising a fleet and provides career profiles for many mariners, examining the familial relationships that existed in port communities and the shipping resources of English ports.

His rise to prominence in the tumultuous arena of 12th-century Middle Eastern politics was rapid and he quickly established himself as an intrepid statesman as well as a formidable military commander of great skill, but equally a man of honor. This detailed biography of Saladin examines Saladin's youth, his military development, his conquest of Egypt and Syria, the Holy War against the crusaders and, crucially, his duel with Richard the Lionheart, including the struggle over Acre and, of course, the fall of Jerusalem.

It accesses the rich and colorful chronicles of Arab historians, providing us with a brilliant insight into the life and deeds of this warrior-monarch. French text, but Heimdal loads its books with full color photos throughout of re-enactors and other imagery. The convoy which brought him necessary reinforcements was intercepted at sea, somewhere between Dover, Sandwich, and South Foreland, and never reached the English coast.

This naval battle is one of the first Anglo-French clashes on sea and showed the innovative tactical skill of the English. Also interesting: the French Commander Eustache Le Moine, a former monk who become pirate and war chief, offering his sword for a price. This, the climactic event of the Black Prince's first campaign as commander, came at the end of nearly a year of campaigning across the southwest of France.

The battle of Poitiers in is less well known than more famous clashes such as Agincourt, however, Poitiers was no less dramatic, and equally important in terms of the course of the Hundred Years War. The capture of King Jean brought France to the brink of total defeat, and led to one of the most devastating and destructive periods in French history.

It is not exaggeration to say that the battle of Poitiers changed the course of history for both France and England. In the summer of the Prince and his army drove northward towards the Loire, attacking once again deep into French territory. This time he met real opposition: the full French army led by King Jean and many of the leading nobility of France, some of them veterans of the defeat at Crecy ten years before. Outnumbered, the Prince fell back, but in September he turned near the city of Poitiers to make a stand.

The battle that followed was a tense encounter. The French had learned much from the disastrous defeat at Crecy, and took time to organize and prepare before attacking. Their advance was deliberate and well-planned, yet the result was the same. Once again, English and Welsh archers wrought mayhem among the French ranks. The French formations disintegrated, and a violent counterattack by English men-at-arms caused it to dissolve entirely.

King Jean and his eldest son made a final stand with some of their followers, but in the end they were forced to surrender and were taken back to England as prisoners. The core of the book is a day-by-day description of the campaign of July-September , climaxing with a detailed description of the Battle of Poitiers itself. The detailed account and analysis of the battle and the campaigns that led up to it has a strong focus on the people involved in the campaign: ordinary men-at-arms and noncombatants as well as princes and nobles. Integrates Arabic Sources into crusades history, allowing readers to appreciate the many sides of the crusades, not just the Crusader perspective.

Brings discussion of violence and religious difference into Mediterranean Studies, a field that usually focuses on day-to-day peaceful inter-religious contact trade, intellectual exchange, etc. Albans and Towton. Very well illustrated. Tracks the technology, artillery, and tactics of starting and maintaining a siege from ancient times to the beginning of the gunpowder age, charting the struggle between defensive structures and the various engines designed to overcome them.

It resulted in the defeat of the Castilian forces and subsequent retreat to Toledo whereas the Almohads conquered back Trujillo, Montanchez, and Talavera. The Castilian king put most of his heavy cavalry in a compact body, about 8, strong, and gave its command to the fierce Diego Lopez de Haro, Lord of Vizcaya. They were to shatter the enemy with an irresistible charge.

The king himself would follow with the infantry and the Military Orders to complete the enemy rout. The Christian cavalry charge was somewhat disordered, but its impetus was still formidable. The knights crashed against the Zanatas and Bani Marin and dispersed them; lured by the Amir's standard, they charged uphill: vizier Abu Yahya was killed and the Hintatas fell almost to a man trying to protect themselves. Yet he was still unable to stir his nobility into providing him with the financial support necessary to mount a campaign against France.

In and rcspeclively, tbe Treaties of Blois and Hag- cnau werc signed, in which thc daughter of the French king was bctrothed to thc Archduke Charles. Thc accord lasted only a year. In Louis proclaimcd that his daughter Claudia would marry thc crown prince, Francis of Angouleme. After the dealh of the Duke of Landshut, George 'the Rich', in , the Wittclsbach family began to quarrel ovcr Ihe legacy. The opposing forccs met at the village of WenZCllsbach ncar Regcnsburg. This was the first major test for Georg von Frundsbcrg later to be nicknamed the father of the Landsknechts in command ofa regimcllI from imilian commanded the anny of his brotherin- law, Albrccht, which outnumbered the quite considerably.

Ruprechl's men had taken up a defensive position on a hillock behind a wall of shields. Ilad wid" calibre. Some 1, men were slaughtered. The victory at Regensburg and subsequent succ.. It was at this Diet that an organised system of payment was for the LandskncchtS. At thc Imperial Dict at Constance he had demanded financial support for his Rome campaign, promising knighthoods for those princes who would follow.

His desired ann of 20, LandsknechtS was never realised. The Venetian Republic barred the way to Rome. This barrier proved to bc tOO strong, for in February that year the Emperor's anny ground to a hah at Trient. Without adequate militaf suppon was obliged to sign a three year truce with the Venetian Republic.

In Ihe following year lvlaximilian commissioned Frundsberg 10 march down the River ElSCh via Trient and recruit a regiment for the Alliance ",hich was now preparing to atlack the Venetian positions. Realising that their strength lay in their diplomatic ralher than their militaI cunning the Venetians tried to manoeuvre each member of the League into a position whereby quarrel and ultimale dissolution would become inevitable. Fnllldsbcrg, who had meanwhile held the fortress city of Verona, was relieved joined the french force commanded by AlessuJ1Cl. Military rork;". Ahlforsdo ; 3 RaJuo,o..

II basic belWftft Swi5lll and German pikedrill It is said that with only I,Boo men Frundsberg succeeded in defeating 9, Venetians and laking the fortresses of Scala, Covelo and the 'impregnable' Cadore in the Dolomites. The strategic importance of this viclory was that il secured the main crossing points in north-eastern Italy for fUlure Imperial armies. Maximilian, secing this as a great opportunity to seal the fatc of France and al the same time secure haly once and for all, joined the League.

The armour shown I. The n. From lhat day onwards the Swm Confcderation bccame an independent political cmity. This break ",ilh Gemlany had strengmened Swiss sympathy for the French. In general the rate "ffiring WIIS.. Creazzo and Novara In the summer of a new army 7, strong commanded by Frundsberg and Ulrich von Hlitlen crossed the Alps and was joined by the veterans of Ravenna.

Uncertain of the political situation, which was in a SlalC of pcrpclllal fllIX, the Imperial army marched on Padua whcre a large Venelian army was reported 10 be assembling. Reinforced with Spanish and Italian contingentS, Frundsberg, after severa] minor skirmis. Ravenna was one of the bloodiest ballies of thai era. Over 10, bodies lay strewn on the bauleficld with double losses for the League.

According 10 Machiavelli the French victory was gained solely due to the stubborn resistance and fierce c1osequaner fighting or the German Landsknechts. Several days after Ravenna Maximilian ordered all the German Landsknechts in the pay of the French to return home. All except obeyed their Emperor; and these Soo wcre to form the nucleus of the infamous 'Black Legion'.

The Venetian Republic, seeing that its real enemies were lhe Germans and the Spanish, struck an alliance with France; and the Pope, a Medici, had other interests. The Papal. Spanish army under the command of Raimund Cardona made a stand three miles from the city, which the Frcnch commander Gaston de Foi" had deliberately besieged in an effort to draw the army of the League into a confrontation with his own force, which numbered 22, and included a contingent of 5, German LandsknechtS. Draw ing up his forces barely 30 yards away from the banks of the River Ronco, Cardona ordered earthworks to be erected across his front.

With his horse on both flanks and his infantry arranged in echelon formation similar lO the Swiss tactic, the Spanish commander ordered wagons to be drawn up in front of the forward infantry square. On these wagons were placed large arquebuses, while lhe heavy artillery was positioned in front of the left wing of cavalry. As the French advanced towards Cardona's front a heavy cannonade bcgan. De Foix, noticing that the enemy had placed mOSI of his strength on the left flank, ordcred his artillery to be drawn up and for twO hours bombarded Cardona's weak right lank.

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The effort proved succcssful, for he brought the enemy out of a strong defensive position on to the field. Colonna, the commander of the Italian horse, threw his troops against the French right wing. Outnumbered twO to one the French were forced back, bllt the advance of the Leaguc was soon checked by a counter-chargc from the French lancers in the rearguard and, thrown illlo confusion, the League was put to roul.

In the centre the Spanish and Italian infantl ' began their advance towards the German Lands kncchtS who stood in typical squared formation. At this poilll the lauer, breaking into a great charge, swooped into the ranks of the Spanish and precipitated biller handto-hand figlaing. Seeing that the Spanish were gaining the upper hand Caslon ordered his horsc to attack the Spanish foot, causing the latter to take up a defensive instead of an offensive formation.

Surrounded on all sides, tbe Spaniards tried to keep together and reach the banks of the Ronco where lhey could make a retreat between the earthworks and the river. Furious ,hat the Spaniards were retreating, Caston ordered a final charge which cost the French 20 f!

Yet Frunds berg and his Locolcllt! Some 8, mercenaries of the Republic met their death against only minor losses for Frundsbcrg's men. The French amly, encamped some 28 miles west of Milan were taken by surprise by a '3, strong Swiss force. In Ihe deadly battle which ensued, the German LandsknechlS of the Black Legion and the French Gascon foot were thrown back and hacked to pieces by the Swiss halberdiers. Out of 10, men thc French suffered 50 per ccnt losses.

Those Landsknechts in the pay of the French who surrendered were e. Novara was the highwatcrmark of Swiss military achicvcment. By the end of ' most of northeastcm Italy wascomrolled by Imperial troops until in the Curtain began to rise on a new act in the Italian tragedy. Marignano who had juggled about with France and the Venctian Republic in an attempt to secure -- Dnu his imperial claim on Italy, was faced with a new problem.

The young and impetuous successor to the French duone, Francis I, was intent on rccovering the lost Dukedom of Milan. In August a French army, 30, strong with a train of 72 guns crossed the Alps and surprised their encmies in the rear, pitching camp at Marignano ten miles southeast of Francis had takcll the trouble to recruit 9, German Landsknechts under the command of the Duke ofGucldres, having lillic rcgard for his own Gascon infantry.

The Swiss, 25, Slrong, had withdrawn to Milan where they received a considerable bribe from Francis to turn against their hosts. The opposing forces met at Marignano on Septcmber Having ordcred some of these to be built up illlo eanhworks Francis placed his artillery, ar quebusicrs and Gascon crossbowm 'n in the front line. Behind this came the Gemlan Landskncchb in 21 w.. Pressing forward, the 'forlorn hope' reached a small fannhouse where, under cover from enemy fire, the Swiss were able to SCt up the fourculverins which!.

Francis immediately ordered a troop of horse to approach the farmhouse with the illlention of setting it on fire. This they succeeded in doing, rendering the cannon useless. Pressing on, the 'forlorn hope' crossed the ditches, wading through waleI' in some places, and traversed the walls built by the French engineers. Complctely overpowering the Gascon archers and arquebusiers the Swiss van, now closely followed by the main body of foot, reached the last ditch protecting the Frcnch position and crashed illlo the German Landskncchts.

In thc ensuing melee the Swiss captured several guns and for a while the two forces were locked together 'at push of pike'. Fortunately the Germans rallied and at their second assault the Swiss were checked by a Ranking charge from the French horse and salvoes from the French artillery, which ripped holes in their ranks. By midnight the battle had reached stalemate.

It is said that both Swiss and Germans slcpttogether on the battlefield until fighting was resumed the folJowing morning. Finally, after 28 hours of 22 fighting, the Swiss withdrew from the field with only 3, men left. The French were thus able 10 recover Milan, while Maximilian could only offer token opposition. When in the Emperor organised a cam- paign from the Tyrol against Venice and his military bankruptcy was exposed. In spite of this his anny had managed to reach the gates of Milan, yet when he hesitated over the assault of the city in favour of a more stratcgic manoeuvre, his troops grew impatient and demanded their Sturmsold.

When this moncy was nOI forthcoming they mutinied, some defecting, some returning home, leaving the Emperorwi!. This marked the end of Maximilian's military engagements. Forced to adopt a more peaceful policy towards France, he concluded the Peace of Brussels with France in December ', by which he delivered up his last prize of the Venetian Th.. The equlpm IUld KoOpS for th.. Landknecht had committed. As lcml.. This suddenly posed a military threat nOt only for France but for the Pope too, for the whole of soulhem Italy belonged to Spain.

Thus when Maximilian died in Pope Leo X allied with Francis I, seeing this as the only move capable of countering a possible pincer movement which any future Gennan emperor could mounl. Francis I, w;th consider- able financial resources at his disposal, set about wooing the German princes who were responsible for the election.

His challenge was shortlived. Charles succeeded in securing the necessary financial supporl from the rich Fuggcr and Welser families of Augsburg, thus enabling him to influence several of the more importam princes. At the same time Maximilian's grandson arranged for an army to be despatched to Frankfurt the venue for the election.

This showofforce commanded by Frundsberg and Franz von Sickingen was 3. This con- frontation meant a revival of the Habsburg-Valois struggle which was to be intensified by Charles's. Ancr several minor engagements in northern Spain Villalar, and thc Netherlands Bouchain hostilities resumed in northern Italy. The French forces under the supreme command of Lautrec had occupied most of the kingdom of Lombardy. Frundsberg, commander of the Imperial forces, was approached by several Italian princes to raise an army and hah the French advance, With the help of hundreds of peasants he cleared a way for his Landsknechts through the snowed-up Bergam askian Alps and joined the Imperial-Papal forces under the command of Prospero Colonna at Milan in February The French Army, which had meanwhile been forced back cast decided to make a stand at La Bicocca in April This was a decisive baule not for any strategic reasons but because for the first time Swiss and German mercenaries faced each othel" in considerable numbers.

Slandard of the Geor. Bicocca and Pavia Colonna, the Italian commander in chargc of the Spanish cOlllingent, had realised that the hunting lodge at La Bicocca presellled a considerable defensive position. A sunken lane ran between the bottom of a garden and the fields which separated Ihe two armies.

He ordered the bank to be built up on the garden side illlo a rampan, and positioned hjs arquebusierson it in ranks four deep, aJong with several heavy cannon. The German pikemen took up the rear of the rampart. As the Swiss advanced across the fields with roeks and sand in their hands ready to throw at their enemy their ranks were decimated by the murderous fire from the Spanish arquebusiers and artilleT.

Those who succeeded in reaching the lane found themselves in a deathtrap and were slaughtercd by the arquebusiers, who were so high that the Swiss pikemen could not even louch them. Frundsberg, adopting the Spanish 'tercio' method, had deployed his pike in chequer- board formation behind the arquebusiers. This proved to be unnecessary, as his pike rushed down into the lane 0 finish olfthe Swiss.

In the ensuing melee Albrecht von Stein and Arnold von Winkel- ried were killed at the hands of Frundsbcrg. Some 5, Swiss, including 2'2 of their officers, were killed in theonslaughl. La Bicocca was a disaster for the Swiss. Lautrec ,,as forced to withdraw from Lombard - and in the following months Genoa surrendered.

La Bicocca proved once and for all the supcriority of the Spanish and German arquc- busiers and the Landsknecht pikemen. The latter, led by Ulrich von Hutten and Franz von Sickingen, felt themselves threatened by the increasing influence of the nobility which had been manifest in the formation ofa RtiduTtgimtnl. Franz von Sickingen had planned to align the knights with the eities in an allempt to seize the political power from the princes. Immediatel the princes united against him and a large force under the Prince Louis of the Palatinate and Duke Philip of Hcssen engaged him throughout the year until finally in the spring of 15'23 their flags were flying on the Landstuhl-Sickingen's castle.

Lbn- ofthe LaacbJutecbu'. Throush hi. He also played. I PII. In haly the Habsburg ally, Duke Francesco Sforza, had taken conlrol of Milan, long regarded as the rightful inheritanc ' of France. Charles, Duke of Bourbon and Constable of France, had quarrelled with his king and taken service wi III the Emperor, who had promised him both the hand of his sister Eleonora, the wido" of the KingofPortugal, and a kingdom in the south of 25 'fhilI pamlinS by Titi.

Charles V a' the B. Wl of b. IHI deco There was only one drnwback and that was the successful invasion of Provence. Francis, instead of pursuing Bourbon, had crossed the Alps in the meantime with an ann of 40, men. Suddenl the tables had tumed. B October ' Francis was at Ihe gates ofMilan with only a handful offortified cities I"emaining under Imperial conlrol. Charles, in response 10 the call for help from Leyva, hadlo throw new troops into the Italian arena. Bourbon, afler a disastrous retreat from Pro- vence, entered Gennany and began recruiting a new anny inJanuary Along with the Spanish troops of Pescara, a considerable anny numbering some 17, infantry and 1, horse was ready to relieve lhe garrison at Pavia.

Meanwhile attempts by the French to diven the River Tissino had proved a failure and a thrce pronged assault on the city had been equally unsuccessful. Realising that the Imperial relief force would soon be aniving, Francis had moved his headquarters to the park of Mirabello, securing a strong position bel ween Pavia and the oncoming Imperialist ann '. Frundsberg, ordel"ing pontoons 10 be built across the Po, dl"ew up his forces facing tht' French artiUery. There foHowed three weeks of trench warfare and intennitlenl sonies. Frundsberg's men succeeded in making contact with Leyva in the city, supplying him with ammunition and provisions and co.

Drenched by rain and decimated by sickness, the French soon began to lose morale. On '20 February, 6, French troops insisled on returning home. At the same time 2, Cennans deserted the French camp, thus reducing Francis's army to less than 20, men. Of this total 9, were Italian, 5, Swiss, 4. His generals advised Francis to withdraw, while Leyva, in a similarly desperate situation, warned Lammy thai he could no longer hold the cil '.

At this point Bourbon begged for an attack. Having crossed the ford they reached the wali of thc park. Without drawing the attention of the enemy the Spanish engin.. Frundsberg now formed a van of seven Fahnltin, ordering them to put on their white shins over their armour those who did not have shirts wercordered to use paper so that they could easily recognise comrades in the darkness.

With three blasts from a cannon Frundsberg signalled to Leyva that it was time to attack. The French, now having to reverse their front, were brought into confusion. Leyva, seeing the time was right, now swept out of the city, thus cUlling offAlcm;on, in command ofthe Frcnch forces on the western nank, from his king. Francis, ordering the attack, sent his horse against the breach in the park wall where several companies of Italians wcre persevering with the remainder of the artillery which was bogged down in the mud.

The French had lillie trouble in forcing the Italians [0 withdraw to a near-by wood. The salvo which Galiot, the French military commander, had fued at the Gennan horse was his first and last, for the French were now charging across his line of fire. In spite of this situation the French had rallied well and were attacking in good order. However, the infantry were too slow in following up the charge and were checked by the Imperialists. The Gennan Lands knee-hts of the Black Band now found themselves facing their own kinsmen in the ranks of Frunds berg and Ems.

In the violent melee which ensued the mercenaries in the pay of lhe French were surrounded on three sides by the Imperial foot and hacked to pieces. Meanwhile the Swiss, facing Pcscara's arquc busiers positioned in the trees of the park, suffered grievously as swift vollies from 1, muskets began decimating their ranks.

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With his fOOL in rout Francis now threw his mounted Gendannes into the fray in a lastditch attempt to break the Imperial assault. Francis was one of the victims. His horse shot from beneath him, he "'as only barely s. Milan aJId lie pursued an agrn,pve fomp poliq wllidt. Ia 15'9 be Holy Ro Emperor. Ia '50 F Fidd of th.. Cloth oC Gald, and fu Protes Priac. The battle had been equally disastrous for the French on the right flank.

In less than twO hours 8, Frenchmen had fallen at the expense of only Imperialists. The defeat of the French at Pavia left Ital at the mercy of Charles, and proved that the Spanish and the Gennan Landskneehts were the best shock troops in Europe. Francis, exiled to Spain, had to suller the humiliation of complying with Charles's terms before he could return to his kingdom.

Thus he pledged to renounce his claims on Burgundy, Italy and Flanders. On '2'2. Italian Cantpaigns The Gennan peasants had sought to venL their political frustration by means of revolt, but this had been speedily crushed by the Swabian Alliance. Furious at the defiance shown by the French court Charles approached Frundsbcrg once again. The forces of the League had already begun to consolidate their positions in Lombardy. He WlUI co. Uy wido toodo However, Frundsberg and Bour- oon were divided and unable 0 join together. Frundsbcrg rightly hesitated to cross, hoping to hear news of the conclusion of a peace treaty, but on seeing that the Papal Venetian army was about to take the offensive he ordered a small falconet to be brought up: loading it himself, he hit the commander of Lhe enemy's forces, smashing Medici's leg 10 pieces with only his second shot.

The Italians withdrew in confusion. Although the Imperial troops were now able to cross the Po and enter Papal territory their strategic position was not strong, as provisions and finances were veT ' low. By the end ofthc year Bourbon had succeeded in assembling an army again and in February A march on Rome now secmed inevitable, for only by forcing Clcment to recognise the Impcrial claim to Italy cOllld Charles succeed in splitting the League down the middle.

At the same time the Imperial anny was thirsting for plunder and to deny the Landsknechts such an opponuniry would have been an open invitation to mutiny. On the march to Romc news came that the Pope had signed a peace treat ' with Lannoy and had offered 60, ducats to appease the Lands knechts. Enraged at the off"er of only twO ducats pcr man, the Spanish and Italian contingents mlltinied on Bourbon.

The news soon spread to Frundsberg's camp, where his men demanded immediate payment on Lheir AlonatssoJd. In a great speech the veteran commander tried to placate his troops, who seemed to be on the verge of mutiny. His attempt was in vain, yet JUSt when il seemed that total rebellion was incvitablc, the situation was saved by an odd twist of fate.

Their reaction BlocIdl. At: of hi. After takUtg th.. Disciplint', in spite of the incidcnt in the German camp. I t was only the thouKht of rich plunder which drove the Imperial arm on towards Rome. By April, Bourbon and had reached Florence, and by decoy. Bouroon, who had been forced to leave his artilleT ' behind and was withollt any siege equipment, asked the Pope for provisions for his men and free access to Naples. The Constabk. On the morning of6 the first German 29 Landskncchts broke through the walls of Rome.