Guide The James Webb Space Telescope [lg article]

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Many of the companies showed similar innovations, such as multiple smart-home security cameras and various curious robots. There were also funny but forgettable entries, such as a water bottle with a Bluetooth speaker, and a refrigerator that detects when you are out of beer and orders more. The event, however, showcased a handful of gems, too.

One of the best, jaw-dropping techs showcased during the first day was undoubtedly LG's new rollable OLED TV, which can disappear at a cluck of a button. Just by clicking a button the screen slides down behind the speaker and rolls up like a garage door to disappear from sight. As we're speaking of mind-blowing installations, we couldn't miss mentioning Google which this year've outdone itself. Yet, the spectacular ride is not surprising, because the world's largest tech conference is more important to the search giant than ever as it pushes devices to consumers that compete against the likes of Amazon, Apple and Samsung.

And as we know, no matter who makes Smart TVs, cars, pianos, or even toilets with integtrated voice-activated helpers, the virtual aide linked to or packaged inside is likely to be one of two: either Amazon's Alexa or Google Assistant. And now to the fun part - these devices that catched the eye with their equally fun and practical capabilities. For example, did you ever imagined that you can have a craft beer machine at home? Well, luckily LG obliged with the HomeBrew. Like a Nespresso capsule machine for beer snobs, you load it up with your choice of beer — American IPA, English stout, Czech Pilsner, American Pale Ale or Belgian Witbier — then pick up your five litres of amber nectar after a two-week brewing process.

Scope of this work is to present the on-ground geometric calibration pipeline for this original instrument. The selected STC off-axis configuration forced to develop a new distortion map model. Additional considerations are connected to the detector, a Si-Pin hybrid CMOS, which is characterized by a high fixed pattern noise. This had a great impact in pre-calibration phases compelling to use a not common approach to the definition of the spot centroids in the distortion calibration process.

This work presents the results obtained during the calibration of STC concerning the distortion analysis for three different temperatures. These results are then used to define the corresponding distortion model of the camera. Suematsu; K. Saito; M. Koyama; Y. Enokida; Y. Okura; T. Nakayasu; T. Sukegawa Show Abstract. The IFU consists of micro-image slicer of 45 arrayed micron-thick metal mirrors and a pseudo-pupil mirror array for making three pseudo-slits, providing possible optical configuration for a coexistence with a usual slit spectrograph without movable mechanism. The IFU mirrors were deposited by a protected silver coating for high reflectivity in visible and near IR wavelength region.

We present the optical design, performance of prototype IFU and space qualification tests of the silver coating. This will be an unprecedented very wide field, HST quality 3D survey of emission line galaxies1. The concept of the compound grism as a slitless spectrometer has been presented previously. The presentation briefly discusses the challenges and solutions of the optical design, and recent specification updates, as well as a brief comparison between the prototype and the latest design. However, the emphasis of this paper is the progress of the grism prototype: the fabrication and test of the complicated diffractive optical elements and powered prism, as well as grism assembly alignment and testing.

Especially how to use different tools and methods, such as IR phase shift and wavelength shift interferometry, to complete the element and assembly tests. The paper also presents very encouraging results from recent element tests to assembly tests. Finally we briefly touch the path forward plan to test the spectral characteristic, such as spectral resolution and response. Lavigne ; N. Rowlands ; F. Grandmont ; D. Marois ; O. Daigle ; S. Thibault ; D.

Fleet of tiny satellites may act as 'guide stars' for giant telescopes in space

Artigau ; D. Brousseau ; J. Maire ; G. Cretot-Richert ; M. Ducharme; L. Levesque; D. Laurin ; J. Dupuis Show Abstract. The mission scientific drivers correspond to some of the deep questions identified in the Canadian LRP, and are also of great interest for the Canadian scientists. Given that there is also a great interest in having an international collaboration in this mission, the Canadian Space Agency awarded two contracts to study a Canadian participation in the mission, one related to each instrument. This paper presents a summary of the technical contributions that were considered for a Canadian contribution to the coronagraph and wide field instruments.

Wallace ; Xu Wang ; Daniel W. Wilson Show Abstract. Challenges remain, however, in the technology readiness for the proposed mission. One is the discrepancies between the achieved contrasts on the testbeds and their corresponding model predictions. A series of testbed diagnoses and modeling activities were planned and carried out on the SPC testbed in order to close the gap.

The difference between these two is an estimate of the error in the control Jacobian. When the control matrix, which includes both amplitude and phase, was modified to reproduce the error, the simulated performance closely matched the SPC testbed behavior in both contrast floor and contrast convergence speed. This is a step closer toward model validation for high contrast coronagraphs.


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Further Jacobian analysis and modeling provided clues to the possible sources for the mismatch: DM misregistration and testbed optical wavefront error WFE and the deformable mirror DM setting for correcting this WFE. These analyses suggested that a high contrast coronagraph has a tight tolerance in the accuracy of its control Jacobian. Modifications to both testbed control model as well as prediction model are being implemented, and future works are discussed. McElwain ; Avi M. Perrin; Karl R. The Large Aperture Telescope Technology LATT goes beyond the current paradigm of future space telescopes, based on a deformable mirror in the pupil relay.

Through the LATT project we demonstrated the concept of a low-weight active primary mirror, whose working principle and control strategy benefit from two decades of advances in adaptive optics for ground-based telescopes. The prototype was subjected to thermo-vacuum, vibration and optical tests, to push its technical readiness toward level 5. In this paper we present the background and the outcomes of the LATT activities under ESA contract TRP programme , exploring the concept of a lightweight active primary mirror for space telescopes.

Active primaries will open the way to very large segmented apertures, actively shaped, which can be lightweight, deployable and accurately phased once in flight. Telescope polarization and image quality: Lyot coronagraph performance Author s : J. Breckinridge ; R. Chipman Show Abstract. In this paper we apply a vector representation of physical optics, sometimes called polarization aberration theory to study image formation in astronomical telescopes and instruments.

We describe image formation in-terms of interferometry and use the Fresnel polarization equations to show how light, upon propagation through an optical system become partially polarized. We make the observation that orthogonally polarized light does not interfere to form an intensity image. We show how the two polarization aberrations diattenuation and and retardance distort the system PSF, decrease transmittance, and increase unwanted background above that predicted using the nonphysical scalar models.

Remind the reader: 1. Polarizers are operators, not filters in the same sense as colored filters, 2. Adaptive optics does not correct polarization aberrations, 3. Future large drift-scan space telescopes, providing high angular resolution and sensitive observations, require long linear focal planes covering large fields of view. Based on Integral Field Unit technology developed for ground based instrumentation, we present an innovative optical system reorganizing a 1D field of view on a 2D detector array. Such a solution presents a high gain in terms of volume and weight, allowing compact cryogenic systems for IR observations.

Gambicorti ; D. Piazza; A. Pommerol; V. Roloff; M. Gerber ; R. Ziethe; M. El-Maarry; T. Weigel ; M. Johnson; D. Vernani ; E. Pelo; V. Da Deppo ; G. Cremonese ; I. Ficai Veltroni; N. A scale of 4. The University of Bern was in charge of the full instrument integration as well as the characterization of the focal plane and calibration of the entire instrument.

The preliminary results of on-ground calibration and the first commissioning campaign April will be described. Ensuring the enduring viability of the space science enterprise: new questions, new thinking, new paradigms Author s : Jonathan Arenberg ; Charles Atkinson ; Alberto Conti Show Abstract.

Pursuing ground breaking science in a highly cost-constrained environment presents new challenges to the development of future space astrophysics missions. This paper explores the nature of the current paradigm and proposes a series of steps to guide the entire community to a sustainable future. Bendek ; Dana H. Lynch; Kenny K. Vassigh ; Zion Young Show Abstract. CAST allows building large aperture telescopes based on small, compatible and low-cost segments mounted on autonomous cube-sized satellites.

The concept merges existing technology segmented telescope architecture with emerging technology smartly interconnected modular spacecraft, active optics, deployable structures. The design enables wide fields of view, up to as much as three degrees, while maintaining aperture growth and image performance requirements.

We present a point design for the CAST concept based on a 0. Its diffraction limited design uses a two arcminute field of view corrector with a 7. Our paper summarizes CAST, presents a strawman optical design and requirements for the underlying modular spacecraft, highlights design flexibilities, and illustrates applications enabled by this new method in building space observatories.

Ulmer ; V. Coverstone; J. Cao; Y. Chung; M. Corbineau; A. Case; B. Murchison; C. Lorenz; G. Luo; J. Pekosh; J. Sepulveda ; A. Schneider; X. Yan; S. Ye Show Abstract. The idea is to deploy a continuous membrane-like mirror. The basic concept is not new. What is new is to use a different approach from the classical piezoelectric-patch technology.

Instead, our concept is based on a contiguous coating of a so called magnetic smart material MSM. After deployment a magnetic write head will move on the non-reflecting side of the mirror and will generate a magnetic field that will produce a stress in the MSM that will correct the mirror deviations from the prescribed shape. ASTRO a 1. Matthews ; Robert Egerman ; Jon A. Morse ; Belinda Wilkes Show Abstract. The Hubble Space Telescope has been a scientific marvel that has provided unimaginable imagery and scientific discovery.

BoldlyGo Institute seeks to reach beyond NASA funding to leverage the high public interest in space research and exploration, and the search for life beyond Earth. Optical telescope system-level design considerations for a space-based gravitational wave mission Author s : Jeffrey C. Livas ; Shannon R. Sankar Show Abstract. The study of the Universe through gravitational waves will yield a revolutionary new perspective on the Universe, which has been intensely studied using electromagnetic signals in many wavelength bands.

A space-based gravitational wave observatory will enable access to a rich array of astrophysical sources in the measurement band from 0. The observatory measures gravitational radiation by precisely monitoring the tiny change in the proper distance between pairs of freely falling proof masses. Optical telescopes are essential for the implementation of this precision displacement measurement. In this paper we describe some of the key system level design considerations for the telescope subsystem in a mission context.

We will review the flow-down of observatory level requirements to the telescope subsystem, particularly pertaining to the effects of telescope dimensional stability and scattered light suppression, two performance specifications which are somewhat different from the usual requirements for an image forming telescope. Astronomy is driven by the quest for higher sensitivity and improved angular resolution in order to detect fainter or smaller objects.

The far-infrared to submillimeter domain is a unique probe of the cold and obscured Universe, harboring for instance the precious signatures of key elements such as water. Space observations are mandatory given the blocking effect of our atmosphere. However the methods we have relied on so far to develop increasingly larger telescopes are now reaching a hard limit, with the JWST illustrating this in more than one way e. We present in this paper the roadmap we have built to bring these three disruptive technologies to technology readiness level 3. We will achieve this goal through design and realization of representative elements: segments of mirrors for optical quality verification, active optics implemented on representative mirror stacks to characterize the shape correction capabilities, and mechanical models for validation of the deployment concept.

Accompanying these developments, a strong system activity will ensure that the ultimate goal of having an integrated system can be met, especially in terms of a scalability toward a larger structure, and b verification philosophy. SEL2 servicing: increased science return via on-orbit propellant replenishment Author s : Benjamin B. Spacecraft designers are driving observatories to the distant Sun-Earth Lagrange Point 2 SEL2 to meet ever-increasing science requirements.

The mass fraction dedicated to propellant for these observatories to reach and operate at SEL2 will be allocated with the upmost care, as it comes at the expense of optics and instrument masses. Restore-L, a mission officially in formulation, will launch a free-flying robotic servicer to refuel a government-owned satellite in LEO by mid This SEL2 mission would launch an autonomous, robotic servicer spacecraft equipped to extend the life of two space assets through refueling.

Two space platforms were chosen to 1 drive the requirements for achieving SEL2 orbit and rendezvous with a spacecraft, and 2 to drive the requirements to translate within SEL2 to conduct a follow-on servicing mission. Two fuels, xenon and hydrazine, were selected to assess a multiple delivery system. This paper will address key mission drivers, such as servicer autonomy necessitated due to communications latency at L2.

Also discussed will be the value of adding cooperative servicing elements to the client observatories to reduce mission risk. Lillie ; Howard A. MacEwen Show Abstract. In this paper we examine the concepts in these and related documents to explore how systems such as EST will shape and support the infrastructure needed by future space vehicles. In so doing, we address previous examples of on-orbit assembly and servicing of space vehicles; the lessons learned from these efforts and the existing systems and facilities available to execute servicing missions; the EST concept for an LUVOIR telescope designed for in-orbit assembly and servicing and the resulting requirements for a servicing vehicle; the use of heavy lift launch vehicles, including the SLS and Exploration Upper Stage to co-manifest other large payloads along with a crewed Orion mission; Deep Space Habitats DSHs in cislunar space as a site for assembly and servicing spacecraft vehicles, and a base for Maneuverable Servicing Vehicles; and how space vehicles need to be designed for in-space assembly and servicing i.

The primary optic is a 0. The membrane its support structure, secondary optics, two imaging cameras and associated control, recording electronics are packaged within half the CubeSat volume. Once in space the supporting pantograph structure is deployed, extending out and pulling the membrane flat under tension. The telescope will then be directed at the Sun to gather images at H-alpha for transmission to the ground.

We will present details of the optical configuration, operation and performance of the flight telescope which has been made ready for launch in early The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites.

Space Eye is based around a 90 mm aperture clear aperture all refractive telescope for broadband wide field imaging in the i' and z' bands. The BRITE nano-satellite mission is an international Austrian-Canadian-Polish project of six small space tele- scopes measuring photometric variability of the brightest stars in the sky. Due to the limited space onboard and the weight constraints, the CCD detectors are poorly shielded and suffer from proton impact.

Shortly after the launch, various CCD defects emerged, producing various sources of impulsive noise in the images. The proposed algorithm, developed by the BRITE photometric team, consists of three main parts: 1 image classification, 2 image processing with aperture photometry and 3 tunable optimization of parameters. The presented pipeline allows one to achieve milli-magnitude precision in photometry.

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Some first scientific results of the mission have just been published. The maturing of high contrast imaging and starlight suppression techniques for future NASA exoplanet characterization missions Author s : Daniel R. Coulter ; David B. Traub Show Abstract. Over exoplanets and hundreds of exoplanetary systems have been detected to date and we are now rapidly moving toward an era where the focus is shifting from detection to direct imaging and spectroscopic characterization of these new worlds and their atmospheres.

NASA is currently studying several exoplanet characterization mission concepts for the Decadal Survey ranging from probe class to flagships. Detailed and comprehensive exoplanet characterization, particularly of exo-Earths, leading to assessment of habitability, or indeed detection of life, will require significant advances beyond the current state-of-the-art in high contrast imaging and starlight suppression techniques which utilize specially shaped precision optical elements to block the light from the parent star while controlling scattering and diffraction thus revealing and enabling spectroscopic study of the orbiting exoplanets in reflected light.

In this paper we describe the two primary high contrast starlight suppression techniques currently being pursued by NASA: 1 coronagraphs including several design variations and 2 free-flying starshades. These techniques are rapidly moving from the technology development phase to the design and engineering phase and we discuss the prospects and projected performance for future exoplanet characterization missions utilizing these techniques coupled with large aperture telescopes in space.

A comparison of analytical depth of search metrics with mission simulations for exoplanet imagers Author s : Dmitry Savransky ; Daniel Garrett; Bruce A. Macintosh Show Abstract. While new, advanced, ground-based instrumentation continues to produce new exoplanet discoveries and provide further insights into exoplanet formation and evolution, our desire to discover and characterize planets of Earth size about stars of all types and ages necessitates dedicated, imaging space instruments.

The fundamental problem with trying to answer the question of how many exoplanets a given instrument will discover is that the number of discoverable planets is unknown, and so all results are entirely dependent on the assumptions made about the population of planets being studied. Here, we explore an alternate approach, which involves explicitly separating instrumental and mission biasing from the assumptions made about planet distributions.

When multiplied by an assumed occurrence rate for planets at this radius and semi-major axis derived from an assumed planetary population , this yields the expected number of detections by the instrument for that population. Integrating over the full ranges of semi-major axis and planetary radius provides estimates of planet yield for a full mission. We use this metric to evaluate the coronagraphs under development for the WFIRST mission under different operating assumptions. We also compare the results of convolving the depth of search with an assumed planetary population to those derived by running full mission simulations based on that same population.

A direct comparison of exoEarth yields for starshades and coronagraphs Author s : Christopher C. Stark; Eric J. Mandell; Michael W. Robinson; Dmitry Savransky ; Stuart B. Shaklan ; Karl R. Stapelfeldt Show Abstract. The scale and design of a future mission capable of directly imaging extrasolar planets will be influenced by the detectable number yield of potentially Earth-like planets. Currently, coronagraphs and starshades are being considered as instruments for such a mission.

We will use a novel code to estimate and compare the yields for starshade- and coronagraph-based missions. We will show yield scaling relationships for each instrument and discuss the impact of astrophysical and instrumental noise on yields. Although the absolute yields are dependent on several yet-unknown parameters, we will present several limiting cases allowing us to bound the yield comparison. Puig; G. Pilbratt ; A. Heske; I. Escudero Sanz; P. Crouzet Show Abstract. This process involves the definition of science and mission requirements as well as a preliminary model payload, and an internal Concurrent Design Facility CDF study providing the input to parallel industrial studies in progress since After this process, the three candidates will be reviewed and in mid one of them will be selected as the M4 mission for launch in ARIEL is a survey-type mission dedicated to the characterisation of exoplanetary atmospheres.

It will employ a 0. Tinetti; P. Drossart ; P. Eccleston ; P. Hartogh; A. Heske; J. Leconte; G. Micela; M. Ollivier ; G. Pilbratt ; L. Puig; D. Turrini; B. Vandenbussche ; P. Wolkenberg; E. Pascale ; J. Beaulieu ; M. Min; M. Rataj ; T. Ray; I. Ribas; J. Barstow ; N. Bowles; A. Coustenis; V. Decin; T. Encrenaz; F. Forget; M Friswell ; M. Griffin ; P. Lagage ; P. Malaguti; A. Moneti; J. Morales; E. Pace ; M. Rocchetto; S. Sarkar; F.

Selsis; W. Taylor ; J. Tennyson; O. Venot; I. Waldmann; G. Wright ; T. Zingales; M. Zapatero-Osorio Show Abstract. The goal of the ARIEL mission is to investigate the atmospheres of several hundred planets orbiting distant stars in order to address the fundamental questions on how planetary systems form and evolve. ARIEL targets will include gaseous and rocky planets down to the Earth-size around different types of stars. The main focus of the mission will be on hot and warm planets orbiting close to their star, as they represent a natural laboratory in which to study the chemistry and formation of exoplanets.

It will also enable the study of thermal and scattering properties of the atmosphere as the planet orbit around the star. ARIEL will have an open data policy, enabling rapid access by the general community to the high-quality exoplanet spectra that the core survey will deliver. Lyot coronagraph design study for large, segmented space telescope apertures Author s : Neil T. Vanderbei ; N. Recent efforts combining the optimization techniques of apodized pupil Lyot coronagraphs APLC and shaped pupils have demonstrated the viability of a binary-transmission mask architecture for extremely high contrast 10 exoplanet imaging.

We are now building on those innovations to carry out a survey of Lyot coronagraph performance for large, segmented telescope apertures. To map the multi-dimensional design parameter space, we have developed a software toolkit to manage large sets of mask optimization programs and execute them on a computing cluster. Here we summarize a preliminary survey of APLC solutions for 4 reference hexagonal telescope apertures.

Hicks ; Richard G. This pathfinder testbed will be used as a tool to study and refine approaches to mitigating instabilities and complex diffraction expected from future large segmented aperture telescopes. A new deformable mirror architecture for coronagraphic instrumentation Author s : Tyler D. Groff ; Aaron Lemmer ; A. Eldorado Riggs Show Abstract. Coronagraphs are a promising solution for the next generation of exoplanet imaging instrumentation.

While a coronagraph can have very good contrast and inner working angle performance, it is highly sensitive to optical aberrations. This necessitates a wavefront control system to correct aberrations within the telescope. The wavefront requirements and desired search area in a deformable mirror DM demand control of the electric field out to relatively high spatial frequencies.

Conventional wisdom leads us to high stroke, high actuator density DMs that are capable of reaching these spatial frequencies on a single surface. Here we model a different architecture, where nearly every optical surface, powered or unpowered, is a controllable element. Rather than relying on one or two controllable surfaces for the success of the entire instrument the modeled instrument consists of a series of lower actuator count deformable mirrors to achieve the same result by leveraging the conjugate planes that exist in a coronagraphic instrument.

To make such an instrument concept effective the imaging optics themselves must become precision deformable elements, akin to the deformable secondary mirrors at major telescope facilities. Such a DM does not exist commercially; all current DMs, while not necessarily incapable of carrying optical power, are manufactured with flat nominal surfaces. This simplifies control and manufacturing, but complicates their integration into an optical system because there is oftentimes a need to pack several into collimated space. Furthermore, high actuator count DMs cannot approximate low order shapes such as focus or tip-tilt without significant mid-spatial frequency residuals, which is not acceptable for a coronagraphic high-contrast imager.

The ability to integrate the wavefront control system into the nominal coronagraphic optical train simplifies packaging, reduces cost and complexity, and increases optical throughput of any coronagraphic instrument. This adds redundancy, increases controllability of the complex aberrations, and mitigates both cost and risk associated with a single high-actuator count device that the entire instrument performance relies on. Here we simulate an optical system with a combination of controllable imaging optics both with and without a high order DM at the pupil.

This example instrument is based loosely on the current DM technology being considered for the WFIRST CGI, and is merely an example of a larger trade study to be done to optimally balance actuator requirements, controllability, and wavefront quality. The relative performance of each configuration with regard to contrast, achievable bandwidth, and redundancy is discussed.

The overall performance enhancements and risk associated with actuator failures on the assumed DM technology is also evaluated. We show preliminary laboratory results advancing the technology readiness of a method to directly image planets and disks in multi-star systems such as Alpha Centauri. This method works with almost any coronagraph or external occulter with a DM and requires little or no change to existing and mature hardware.

We identified two main challenges associated with double-star or multi-star systems and methods to solve them. They involved a 32x32 deformable mirror but no coronagraph for simplicity. Starshades are an exoplanet direct-imaging architecture that uses a precisely-shaped screen to block the light from a star in order to achieve high-contrast imaging of exoplanets. The shape of the deployable starshade structure must precisely match the design shape in order to maintain the high level of starlight suppression.

In this paper, we discuss analysis of error sources from the starshade structure including manufacturing, dynamics, and thermal distortion to show that the starshade can achieve the needed optical performance. Novicki; Steven Warwick; Daniel K. Smith ; Michael C. Richards; Anthony Harness Show Abstract. The external starshade is a method for the direct detection and spectral characterization of terrestrial planets around other stars, a key goal identified in ASTRO Tests of starshades have been and continue to be conducted in the lab and in the field using non-collimated light sources.

We extend the current approach to performing night-time observations of astronomical objects using small-scale cm starshades and the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope at Kitt Peak National Observatory. This configuration allows us to make measurements of stars with a Fresnel number close to those expected in proposed full-scale space configurations. We present the results of our engineering runs conducted in The strategy behind is to scrutinize a large fraction of the sky collecting lightcurves of a large number of stars and detecting transits of exo-planets whose apparent orbit allow for the transit to be visible from the Earth.

Furthermore, as the transit is basically able to provide the ratio of the size of the transiting planet to the host star, the latter is being characterized by asteroseismology, allowing to provide accurate masses, radii and hence density of a large sample of extra solar bodies. In order to be able to then follow up from the ground via spectroscopy radial velocity measurements these candidates the search must be confined to rather bright stars.

To comply with the statistical rate of the occurrence of such transits around these kind of stars one needs a telescope with a moderate aperture of the order of one meter but with a Field of View that is of the order of 50 degrees in diameter.

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This is achieved by splitting the optical aperture into a few dozens identical telescopes with partially overlapping Field of View to build up a mixed ensemble of differently covered area of the sky to comply with various classes of magnitude stars. The single telescopes are refractive optical systems with an internally located pupil defined by a CaF2 lens, and comprising an aspheric front lens and a strong field flattener optical element close to the detectors mosaic. In order to continuously monitor for a few years with the aim to detect planetary transits similar to an hypothetical twin of the Earth, with the same revolution period, the spacecraft is going to be operated while orbiting around the L2 Lagrangian point of the Earth-Sun system so that the Earth disk is no longer a constraints potentially interfering with such a wide field continuous uninterrupted survey.

Rando ; J. Asquier; C. Corral Van Damme; K. Isaak ; F. Ratti; F. Safa; R. Southworth; C. Broeg; W. Benz Show Abstract. The CHEOPS mission is devoted to the first-step characterization of known exoplanets orbiting bright stars, to be achieved through the precise measurement of exo-planet radii using the technique of transit photometry.

The paper describes the CHEOPS development status, focusing on the performed hardware manufacturing and test activities.

The James Webb Space Telescope Is Delayed (Again)! What Is Happening?

Beck ; C. Broeg; A. Fortier; V. Cessa; L. Malvasio; D. Piazza; W. Benz; N. Thomas; D. Magrin ; V. Viotto; M. Bergomi; R. Ragazzoni ; I. Pagano; G. Peter; M. Buder; J. Plesseria ; M. Steller; R. Ottensamer ; D. Ehrenreich; C. Van Damme; K. Ratti; N.

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Rando ; I. Ngan Show Abstract. The mission was formally adopted in early February with a planned launch readiness end of The mission is dedicated to searching for exoplanetary transits by performing ultrahigh precision photometry on bright starts already known to host planets whose mass has been already estimated through ground based observations. The instrument is an optical Ritchey-Chretien telescope of 30 cm clear aperture using a single CCD detector.

The optical system is designed to image a de-focused PSF onto the focal plane with very stringent stability and straylight rejection requirements providing a FoV of 0. Given the demanding schedule and cost constrains, the mission relies mostly on components with flight heritage for the platform as well as for the payload components. Nevertheless, several new developments are integrated into the design as for example the telescope structure and the very low noise, high stability CCD front end electronics.

This paper describes the current instrument and mission design with a focus on the instrument. It outlines the technical challenges and selected design implementation. Based on the current status, the instrument noise budget is presented including the current best estimate for instrument performance. The current instrument design meets the science requirements and mass and power margins are adequate for the current development status.

Ricker ; R. Vanderspek; J. Winn; S. Seager ; Z. Berta-Thompson; A. Levine; J. Villasenor; D. Latham; D. Charbonneau; M. Holman; J. Sasselov; A. Szentgyorgyi ; G. Torres; G. Bakos; T. Brown; J. Christensen-Dalsgaard; H. Kjeldsen; M. Clampin ; S. Rinehart ; D. Deming; J. Doty ; E. Dunham ; S. Ida; N. Kawai ; B. Sato; J. Jenkins ; J. Lissauer; G. Jernigan; L. Kaltenegger; G. Laughlin; D. Lin; P. McCullough; N. Narita; J. Pepper; K.

Stassun; S. Udry Show Abstract. This first-ever spaceborne all-sky transit survey will identify planets ranging from Earth-sized to gas giants. TESS stars will be far brighter than those surveyed by previous missions; thus, TESS planets will be easier to characterize in follow-up observations. For the first time it will be possible to study the masses, sizes, densities, orbits, and atmospheres of a large cohort of small planets, including a sample of rocky worlds in the habitable zones of their host stars.

The Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite, a NASA Explorer-class mission in development, will discover planets around nearby stars, most notably Earth-like planets with potential for follow up characterization. The all-sky survey requires a suite of four wide field-of-view cameras with sensitivity across a broad spectrum.

The performance of the camera is critical for the mission objectives, with both the optical system and the CCD detectors contributing to the realized image quality. The simulations include a probabilistic model to determine the depth of travel in the silicon before the photons are converted to photo-electrons, and a Monte Carlo approach to charge diffusion.

The charge diffusion model varies with the remaining depth for the photo-electron to traverse and the strength of the intermediate electric field. The simulations are compared with laboratory measurements acquired by an engineering unit camera with the TESS optical design and deep depletion CCDs.

In this paper we describe the performance simulations and the corresponding measurements taken with the engineering unit camera, and discuss where the models agree well in predicted trends and where there are differences compared to observations. Gaia: focus, straylight and basic angle Author s : A. Mora; M. Biermann; A. Bombrun; J. Boyadjian; F. Chassat; P. Corberand; M. Davidson; D. Doyle ; D. Escolar; W. Gielesen; T. Guilpain; J. Hernandez; V.

Kirschner; S. Klioner; C. Koeck; B. Laine; L. Lindegren; E. Serpell; P. Tatry; P. Thoral Show Abstract. The Gaia all-sky astrometric survey is challenged by several issues affecting the spacecraft stability. Amongst them, we find the focus evolution, straylight and basic angle variations Contrary to pre-launch expectations, the image quality is continuously evolving, during commissioning and the nominal mission. Payload decontaminations and wavefront sensor assisted refocuses have been carried out to recover optimum performance.

An ESA-Airbus DS working group analysed the straylight and basic angle issues and worked on a detailed root cause analysis. In parallel, the Gaia scientists have also analysed the data, most notably comparing the BAM signal to global astrometric solutions, with remarkable agreement. In this contribution, a status review of these issues will be provided, with emphasis on the mitigation schemes and the lessons learned for future space missions where extreme stability is a key requirement.

Enabling science with Gaia observations of naked-eye stars Author s : J. Sahlmann ; J. Mora; A. Abreu; C. Crowley; E. Joliet Show Abstract. Here, we describe the current status and extent of those observations and their on-ground processing. Finally, we discuss how the Gaia survey could be enhanced by further exploiting the techniques we developed. Theia is a logical successor to Gaia, as a focused, very high precision astrometry mission which addresses two key science objectives of the ESA Cosmic Vision program: the nature of dark matter and the search for habitable planets.

Theia s "point and stare" operational mode will enable us to answer some of the most profound questions that the results of the Gaias survey will ask. The Theia spacecraft, which will carry a 0. The preliminary Theia mission assessment allowed us to identify a safe and robust mission architecture that demonstrates the mission feasibility within the Soyuz ST launch envelope and a small M-class mission cost cap. We present here these features of the mission that has been submitted to the last ESA M4 call in January Ogawa ; T. Nakagawa ; H. Matsuhara ; K. Shinozaki ; K.

Goto; N. Isobe ; M. Kawada ; T. Mizutani ; Y. Sato ; H. Sugita ; S. Takeuchi; T. Yamawaki; H. Shibai Show Abstract. We present the new design of the cryogenic system of the next-generation infrared astronomy mission SPICA under the new framework. The new design employs the V-groove design for radiators, making the best use of the Planck heritage.

The basic design concept of the SPICA cryogenic system is to cool the Science Instrument Assembly SIA, which is the combination of the telescope and focal-plane instruments below 8K by the combination of the radiative cooling system and mechanical cryocoolers without any cryogen.

The key functions of these channels are high-speed dustband mapping with LRS, high-sensitivity multi-purpose spectral mapping with MRS, and high-resolution molecular-gas spectroscopy with HRS. This paper describes the technical concept and scientific capabilities of SMI. Rigopoulou; M. Caldwell ; B. Ellison ; C. Pearson; E. Caux; A. Cooray; J.

NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope sheds light on "alien megastructure" star

Gallego ; M. Gerin; J. Goicoechea; P. Goldsmith ; C. Kramer; D. Lis; S. Molinari; V. Ossenkopf-Okada; G. Savini ; B. Tan; X. Tielens; S. Viti; M. Wiedner; G. Yassin Show Abstract. FIRSPEX opens up a relatively unexplored spectral and spatial parameter space that will produce an enormously significant scientific legacy by focusing on the properties of the multi-phase ISM, the assembly of molecular clouds in our Galaxy and the onset of star formation; topics which are fundamental to our understanding of galaxy evolution. The need for state-of-the-art sensitivity dictates the use of superconducting mixers configured either as tunnel junctions or hot electron bolometers.

This technology requires cooling to low temperatures, approaching 4K, in order to operate. The receivers will operate in double sideband configuration providing a total of 7 pixels on the sky. FIRSPEX will operate from L2 in both survey and pointed mode enabling velocity resolved spectroscopy of large areas of sky as well as targeted observations.


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  • On Aristotle On the Heavens 1.3-4 (Ancient Commentators on Aristotle).
  • The furthest object ever explored by a spacecraft.
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Rinehart ; M. Rizzo; D. Leisawitz ; J. Staguhn ; M. DiPirro ; J. Mentzell; R. Juanola-Parramon; A. Dhabal ; L. Mundy; S. Moseley Jr. Mather ; D. Padgett; K. Stapelfeldt ; A. Roberge; M. Cordiner; S. Milam; T. Veach ; D. Fixsen Show Abstract. In this talk, we will discuss some of the potential scientific questions that could be addressed with the mission, the current design, and the path forward to concept maturation.


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These two instruments, the visual light high spacial resolution imager VIS and the near infrared spectrometer and photometer NISP are separated by a dichroic beam splitter. Its huge field of view FoV - larger than the full moon disk - together with high demands on the optical performance and strong requirements on in flight stability lead to very challenging demands on alignment and post launch — post cool-down optical element position.

The role of an accurate and trust-worthy tolerance analysis which is well adopted to the stepwise integration and alignment concept, as well as to the missions stability properties is therefore crucial for the missions success. While the previous contributions of this series of papers e. The NISP instrument is only possible, due to the innovative use of technologies such as computer generated hologram CGH based manufacturing and alignment.

Expanding this concept, certain steps in the assembly process, such as focal length determination before detector placement allow to reduce the overall tolerance induced imaging errors. With this papers we show three major examples of this shortcutting strategy. Burgarella ; P.