Guide Policymakers Guide to International Achievement Studies

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Research Areas Academic Language and Literacy WIDA researchers study the ways students need to use language to meaningfully engage in school, community, and society. Psychometrics Our researchers are continually investigating multiple facets of assessments, including item and test design, accessibility features, the consequences of testing, as well as the psychometric properties of all WIDA assessments. Policy Our researchers conduct research intended to guide practice and policy for promoting academic and social success among multilingual learners. Publications WIDA researchers share the results of their work through a variety of outlets.

A report on key components of high quality professional development for educators of English language learners. A research brief on the size and characteristics of the so-called long-term EL population across 15 states. Full report also available. LTEL Brief. PISA, for example, has been designed from the outset to give trend data for each country—each country can use its own previous performance as a basis for comparison. Misleading reporting — league tables The problem: There is concern that reporting overall mean results, particularly in overall league tables, encourages readers to draw inappropriate conclusions about the differences between countries and the strength of correlations between achievement and background variables.

A solution: Where league tables appear, they need to include qualifiers which assist readers to interpret the relative positions of countries. Data need to be disaggregated in ways that provide information otherwise masked by overall means. For example, within country correlations between achievement and background variables need to be reported.

Variables that are positively correlated with achievement across countries may be negatively correlated with achievement in any one country. I see great challenges nationally in creating a working link from both the international and national level down to the classroom level. How can we— nationally and internationally—manage to make the results from international surveys to be useful for both teachers and schools in such a way that both instruction and practice are improved?

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The debate about the quality of different school structures in different German Lander example 17 was conducted in a context where the number of schools drawn for each Land was generally too small to permit inferences—a point overlooked in the debate. Are the aims of the study clear? The aims of the study need to be clear and to address national as well as international policy concerns. Countries that join studies at the planning stage have an influence on what is addressed and how. Page 30 1 Clear study aims and research questions The aims of the study and the research questions to be addressed need to be clearly stated.

Ideally, the research questions should address important policy and theory-oriented issues for all participating countries. For example, if data are to be used to track changes in achievement over time, then, where possible, each new international study needs to be linked to a previous international study. Will the data be valid and reliable? Ideally they also will be sensitive to instruction that is, effective instruction will produce improvements in performance.

Questions in the background questionnaires that address policy issues outlined in the study will be included. Sampling needs to be conducted so that the standard errors are acceptable in relation to the policy decisions that will be based on results.

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Recent standards require sampling precision at the same as, or better than, a simple random sample of students for educational outcome measures. The extent of school and student-level exclusions needs to be detailed and the impact of these on comparisons of means and distributions assessed. Reports should attempt to make the results useful for teachers and schools so that instruction and practice can be improved. League tables should be used with caution and interpreted carefully.

Is the complexity of the data considered before policy conclusions are drawn? For example, it could be misleading to argue on the basis of TIMSS results in favour of formal teaching, because it is a characteristic of Japanese education, without arguing for mixed ability groupings, which are also a characteristic of Japanese education. Are there procedures to monitor the usefulness of the study findings? Will the reporting be comprehensive? Emphasises strengthening academic expectations by benchmarking students to the highest performing nations, promotes cross-state collaboration on curriculum, accountability and assessment.

They aim to become first in the world in math and science achievement.

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Employment Outlook. Paris: OECD. Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development Lifelong Learning for All. See note 2. Levin, H. Educational Researcher, 27 4 Robinson, P. The tyranny of league tables in Alexander, R. UK: Symposium Books. Oxford: Pergamon Press. Kotte, D. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Camberwell: ACER. Stockholm: Almqvist and Wicksell. See note 6. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Berkshire: NFER. Melbourne: Australian Council for Educational Research. Keeves, J. The Hague: IEA. See note Purves, A. Berkeley: McCutchan. IEA study of reading literacy. Vancouver, Canada: Pacific Educational Press. Dordrecht Netherlands: Kluwer Academic Publishers. New York: Summit Books. See note 7. Unicorn, 24 2 Achievement in mathematics 1 in Garden, R. Wellington: Ministry of Education. See endnote Page 30 Husen, T. Pretoria: Human Sciences Research Council. See note 5. Practitioner's Guide to Assessing Intelligence and Achievement.

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The complete guide to international jobs and careers. Recommend Documents. Your name. Close Send. Remember me Forgot password? Until researchers and practitioners address these fundamental hurdles the sustainability and impact of the positive education movement with education more broadly will be diminished. Research centers must focus on the development of common definitions of the key terms well-being, positive psychology and positive education; recommendations for how to approach whole systems change improvement; articulating the social and financial return on investment for such an approach; and developing tools to help manage and drive sustainable change.

Government policies should strive for individuals and communities to develop the skills required to move whole communities towards flourishing. This evolution will enable individuals who are experiencing moderate levels of mental health to progress towards a flourishing state. I acknowledge thought provoking discussions with Professor James Arthur, Dr. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Psychology of Well-Being.

Targeted Evaluations Can Help Policymakers Set Priorities

Psychol Well Being. Published online Feb 9. Mathew A. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. White, Email: ua. Corresponding author.

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Received Dec 12; Accepted Jan This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Following the launch of the positive psychology movement teachers and educators emerged as early adopters of this fledgling science. Background Launched at the start of the new millennium, positive psychology was the focus of American Psychologist, edited by Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi a , b.

Defining Positive Education Very early in the launch of the positive psychology movement, applications within educational settings emerged. Here is a sampling of recent findings on the benefits of self-control and perseverance: Self-control predicted high school grades, absences, and at-home study habits better than IQ Duckworth and Seligman If supporters of positive education hope to gain substantial traction with government policy, researchers should systematically engage with these eight obstacles: Financial the view that large sums of money should be spent on training staff in well-being.

The silver bullet it can be seen to fix all the challenges in education. Where are the immediate benefits, what about teaching them to write! Open in a separate window. Building Positive Institutions: Top-Down Examples Following the launch of the positive psychology movement throughout the world, there has been evidence of top-down and bottom-up initiatives in well-being globally that have had an impact on well-being at individual, team, and community levels.

Grass-roots Initiatives of Well-being that Stick On the other hand, there have been some very powerful examples of community engagement related to the topic of well-being that are at the grassroots level in society Carey Each of these initiatives and developments has substantial merit and appears to be united by a similar vision: To foster the implementation and development of the science of well-being and its applications in education settings.

To help individuals and groups or communities to flourish. Case Study: Dr. Lead Position South Australia as a world-leading state of well-being. Measure Measure the well-being of South Australians. Build Teach, build and embed well-being science in South Australia. A Road Map to Positive Education in Education The case for well-being in policy, in the years ahead, I believe that if the well-being and positive psychology movement are to be taken seriously within education at a policy level, then centers for the study of positive psychology at the University of Pennsylvania, the University of Melbourne, Australian Catholic University, and others around the world must provide the scientific evidence, organizational benefits, and philosophical arguments to support the integration of well-being in educational policy in the same way that we integrate whole-school approaches to literacy and numeracy.

I believe that this revolves around: Having robust evidence-based and scientifically informed answers to critiques; not ceding the well-being agenda to the critics; the necessity of establishing a compelling case as to why well-being matters in its own right; and the need to integrate more coherently an Aristotelian view of the flourishing life, as well as psychologically informed approaches.

These are: Leadership and vision a unified voice is required across systems and sectors within education to challenge existing views of education as soley focusing on reading, writing and arithmetic. Positive school psychology. Evidence based approaches. In positive education. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority.

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The Shape of the Australian Curriculum v4. Brasher K, Wiseman J. Policy signpost: community well-being in an unwell world: trends, challenges and opportunities. Melbourne: McCaughey Centre; Defining Australian Indigenous well-being: do we really want the answer? Implications for policy and practice.

Psychother Polit Int. Darling-Hammond L. Powerful teacher education: Lessons from exemplary programs. California: John Wiley and Sons Inc; Addressing the social determinants of subjective well-being: the latest challenge for social policy. J Soc Policy. Learning and Well-being Framework. Queensland Department for Education; Self-discipline outdoes IQ in predicting academic performance of adolescents.

Psychol Sci. Deliberate practice spells success: why grittier competitors triumph at the National Spelling Bee. Soc Psychol Personality Sci. Grit: perseverance and passion for long-term goals. J Pers Soc Psychol. What no child Left behind leaves behind: the roles of IQ and self-control in predicting standardized achievement test scores and report card grades.

J Educ Psychol. Research report: self-controlled children stay leaner in the transition to adolescence. Handbook of positive psychology in schools.

Serious Challenges

New York: Routledge; Psychological well-being: evidence regarding its causes and consequences. Appl Psychol Health Well-being. The state of well-being science: concepts, measures, interventions, and policies. Interventions and policies to enhance well-being. New York: Wiley; Well-being in children and families.

J Posit Psychol. Assessing employee wellbeing in schools using a multifaceted approach: associations with physical health, life satisfaction, and professional thriving. Ten Myths about character, virtue and virtue education—plus three well-founded misgivings. British J Educ Stud. Virtues and vices in positive psychology. New York: Cambridge University Press; Making use of evidence from well-being research in policy and practice.

The economics of well-being. An urgent need to keep mental health in mind. The Sydney Morning Herald. Sky News Report. Accessed 7 Dec Positive psychology and adolescents: Where are we now? Where to from here? Australian Psychol. Put the pursuit of well-being at the heart of public policy.

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The Financial Times. Work Hard, Be Nice. Retrieved 11 Dec Ormerod P. The Folly of Well-being in Public Policy. In: Booth P, editor. And the pursuit of happiness: well-being and the role of government. London: Inst Econ Affairs; Well-being and achievement. Unpublished manuscript. Retrieved 6 Feb Peterson C. A primer in positive psychology.