Jacqueline Lee Bouvier and John F. Kennedy were married on the morning of September 12, , in St. The more than eight hundred guests included many notable individuals. The ceremony was performed by Archbishop Cushing, a friend of the Kennedy family, and he was assisted by four other priests, including the former president of Notre Dame and the head of the Christopher Society.
The reception was held on the terrace of the acre Auchincloss oceanfront estate, Hammersmith Farm, for more than twelve hundred guests. The wedding cake, four feet tall, was ordered by Joseph P. Meyer Davis and his orchestra played under a huge canopy. Senator John F. The Lavon Affair. Among the targets were the libraries of the United States Information Service in both cities.
The Lavon Affair: How a false-flag operation led to war and the Israeli bomb. Those events included a public trial and conviction of eight Egyptian Jews who carried out the covert operation, two of whom were subsequently executed; a retaliatory military incursion by Israel into Gaza that killed 39 Egyptians; a subsequent Egyptian—Soviet arms deal that angered American and British leaders, who then withdrew previously pledged support for the building of the Aswan Dam; the announced nationalization of the Suez Canal by Nasser in retaliation for the withdrawn support; and the subsequent failed invasion of Egypt by Israel, France, and Britain in an attempt to topple Nasser.
In the wake of that failed invasion, France expanded and accelerated its ongoing nuclear cooperation with Israel, which eventually enabled the Jewish state to build nuclear weapons. In , less than two years after being elected to the Senate, doctors recommended that Kennedy undergo back surgery to fuse his spinal disks with a metal plate.
Doctors told Kennedy in that if he did not undergo the surgery he could be confined to a wheelchair for life. And yet the procedure was still risky due to his adrenal condition. Against the wishes of his father, Kennedy opted for surgery, and nearly paid dearly for it. After the surgery was performed that fall, Kennedy developed a urinary tract infection. And once again a priest was summoned to deliver last rites. But of course, Kennedy did make it.
His recovery, however, was slow. His medical issues hardly ended there. Kennedy was hospitalized at least nine different times within the next two years and heavily medicated. However, the young senator was able to turn the narrative to attribute his medical woes to a war injury and used his young, telegenic appearance to propel himself to the presidency within only a few years.
Joseph McCarthy is censured by the U. JFK abstains from voting on the resolution. In , the Senate voted to censure McCarthy and Kennedy drafted a speech supporting the censure. However, it was not delivered because Kennedy was hospitalized at the time. The speech had the potential of putting Kennedy in the position of participating procedurally by "pairing" his vote against that of another senator.
Although Kennedy never indicated how he would have voted, the episode damaged his support among members of the liberal community. Kennedy undergoes a second spinal operation in New York. While convalescing Jackie supposedly asked him to write. Kennedy started to write a history of acts of bravery and integrity by eight heroic American Senators, Profiles in Courage , which won the Pulitzer Prize for Biography in The highlight of the Democratic Convention held in the International Amphitheatre on the South Side of Chicago, Illinois August 13 - August 17, came when Presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson II, in an effort to create excitement for the ticket, made the surprise announcement that the convention's delegates would choose his running mate.
This set off a desperate scramble among several candidates to win the nomination. A good deal of the excitement of the vice-presidential race came from the fact that the candidates had only one hectic day to campaign among the delegates before the voting began. The two leading contenders were Senator Kefauver, who retained the support of his primary delegates, and John F.
Kennedy, who, as a first term Senator from Massachusetts, was relatively unknown at that point. Kennedy surprised the experts by surging into the lead on the second ballot; at one point he was only 15 votes shy of winning. However, a number of states then left their "favorite son" candidates and switched to Kefauver, giving him the victory. Kennedy then gave a gracious concession speech. The narrow defeat raised his profile and helped Kennedy's long-term presidential chances, yet by losing to Kefauver he avoided any blame for Stevenson's expected loss to Eisenhower in November.
As of , this was the last time any presidential or vice presidential nomination of either the Democratic or Republican parties, went past the first ballot. Roll Call for V. At the Democratic National Convention, John Kennedy delivered a speech to withdraw his name from the vice presidential nomination. Presidential nominee Adlai Stevenson II announced that the convention would vote on the vice presidential nominee.
Senator Kennedy lost by a small margin to Senator Kefauver. On the morning of August 23, , a month before the baby was due, Jacqueline Kennedy awoke and cried out for her mother, she was hemorrhaging. She gave birth to a stillborn infant that she secretly called, Arabella. The incumbent President, Republican Dwight D. Eisenhower, successfully ran for re-election. The election was a re-match of , as Eisenhower's opponent in was Adlai Stevenson, a former Illinois governor, whom Eisenhower had also defeated in Kennedy gains a plum assignment to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, allowing him to gain valuable political experience and increase his prestige.
Kennedy came to Springfield in , he predicted Democratic wins in the next two national elections - but not his own victory in the presidential election. Kennedy came to town Feb. Jackson Day, which has been renamed Democrat Days of the Ozarks, is an annual gathering of liberals in southwest Missouri. At the time, Kennedy was a young senator from Massachusetts. This is believed to be the only visit Kennedy ever made to Springfield, according to News-Leader archives. Profiles in Courage is awarded the Pulitzer Prize for Biography.
July 2, Kennedy was the first Senator to support Algeria's struggle for Independence. Kennedy then switched gears, noting that a true friend of France would not stand by and watch France tear itself asunder in a futile war, one that would only delay the inevitable. Did that tragic episode not teach us that, whether France likes it or not, admits it or not, or has our support or not, their overseas territories are sooner or later, one by one, inevitably going to break free and look with suspicion on the Western nations who impeded their steps to independence?
As historian Allan Nevins wrote, no speech by Sen. Kennedy had attracted more attention than this one, and much was negative. But again, as in , Stevenson and another fellow Democrat, former Secretary of State Dean Acheson, also attacked him. This recording of Senator John F. The recording was broadcast at a. The recording was made in Washington, D. In , Kennedy was re-elected to a second term in the Senate, defeating his Republican opponent, Boston lawyer Vincent J. Celeste, by a wide margin. It was during his re-election campaign that Kennedy's press secretary at the time, Robert E.
Thompson, put together a film entitled The U. Kennedy Story , which exhibited a day in the life of the Senator and showcased his family life as well as the inner workings of his office. It was the most comprehensive film produced about Kennedy up to that time. Kennedy writes, A Nation Of Immigrants. The Story Behind John F. American fashion and portrait photographer Mark Shaw captured the Kennedys at home in , in a series of unprecedented intimate images. Kennedy had socialized with Sinatra and the group on occasion and liked the camaraderie, which later turned to political and financial support on his behalf.
January 2, Results of Presidential Election Primaries. Campaign of Despite his youth, year-old John F. Kennedy captured the Democratic nomination in and went on to win one of the closest elections in United States history. On January 5, , the journalist James M. Cannon recorded a dinner party conversation at the home of John F. Kennedy, who had declared his candidacy for president three days earlier. Also present were his wife, Jacqueline, and their close friends Ben and Toni Bradlee.
The conversation includes fascinating and candid revelations about Kennedy's medical problems, his private reasons for wanting to run, and his worry that he was too introverted to be a natural politician. This would be the first of 10 primary victories for the Massachusetts Senator. Speeches given by Senator John F. Kennedy concerning a proposal for the expansion of Public Law , also known as the Food for Peace program. Kennedy campaigning in Charleston, West Virginia Kennedy delivering a campaign speech on the steps in front of the State Capitol.
Kennedy outperforms Senator Hubert Humphrey. Senators John F. Kennedy and Hubert H. Humphrey appeared in a televised debate during the West Virginia primary campaign. West Virginia shows that Kennedy, a Catholic, could win in a heavily Protestant state. On February 10, , Powers was exchanged, along with American student Frederic Pryor, in a well-publicized spy swap at the Glienicke Bridge in Berlin. Powers credited his father with the swap idea. After four years of uneventful missions, why had this flight suddenly crashed on Mayday, two weeks before an unprecedented summit scheduled in Paris between Eisenhower and Khruschev, and who exactly authorized the flight on that date?
No one will ever know whether it was accidental or intentional. Eisenhower at a Paris summit meeting between the two heads of state. Kennedy was the first presidential candidate to campaign on an entertainment talk show when he appeared on The Tonight Show, Starring Jack Paar. In the end, the Kennedy-Johnson ticket was assembled.
In the week before the convention opened, John F. Kennedy received two new challengers when Lyndon B. However, neither Johnson nor Stevenson was a match for the talented and highly efficient Kennedy campaign team led by Robert Kennedy. Johnson challenged Kennedy to a televised debate before a joint meeting of the Texas and Massachusetts delegations; Kennedy accepted. Most observers felt that Kennedy won the debate, and Johnson was not able to expand his delegate support beyond the South. Stevenson was popular among many liberal delegates, especially in California, but his two landslide defeats in and led party leaders to search for a "fresh face" who had a better chance of winning.
After Kennedy secured the nomination, he asked Johnson to be his running mate in a move which surprised many. To this day there is much debate regarding the details of Johnson's nomination—why it was offered and why he agreed to take it. Jackson to be his running mate, and that he offered the nomination to Johnson first only as a courtesy to the powerful Senate Majority Leader. July 13, Johnson of Texas. Kennedy asked Senator Lyndon Baines Johnson of Texas to be his vice presidential candidate, despite opposition from many liberal delegates and Kennedy's own staff, including his brother Bobby.
Kennedy picks Senator Lyndon B. Johnson as running mate Kennedy was the first senator since to be nominated for the presidency by either the Democrats or the Republicans. Senator Kennedy Acceptance Speech Videos. Kennedy accepts the nomination of the Democratic party to run in the presidential election of He announces Lyndon B. Johnson as his vice-presidential running mate. In the end, the Kennedy-Johnson ticket was assembled and went on to secure an electoral college victory and a narrow popular vote plurality slightly over , nationally in the fall over the Republican candidates Richard M.
Nixon and Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr.
Young told them about a recent conversation she had with a private detective named Fred Otash. She says Otash asked her about her 'participation in sex parties' with then Sen. Young told Otash that she had 'no knowledge of such activities' and didn't know any other call girls who were present at any such parties. Otash reportedly wanted Young to reach out to Sen. Kennedy for a meeting, so she could record him making 'indiscreet statements'.
The private detective implied that a magazine was 'looking for dirt on Kennedy' that they could use before the November presidential election. For more see the comprehensive section:. Kennedy, Delivered in the Senate. Today we begin debate upon the minimum wage bill known as the Fair Labor Standards Amendments of The bill has two major purposes. Second, it will extend the protection of the Fair Labor Standards Act to 5 million additional employees, chiefly in large-scale interstate retail and service industries, thereby guaranteeing these employees a fair minimum wage and a just premium for overtime Address of Senator John F.
Kennedy to the Greater Houston Ministerial Association. Presidential candidate John F. Many Protestants questioned the ability of a Roman Catholic President to make important national decisions independently of the influence of his church. Senator Kennedy answers those questions before an audience of Protestant clergy, many of whom may believe that he can not.
Kennedy and Richard Nixon participate in the first-ever televised presidential debate. The debate, which showcases Jack's youth and charm, marks a turning point in the campaign. Smith, moderates. Kennedy-Nixon First Presidential Debate On September 26, , Senator John F. Kennedy and Vice President Richard M. Nixon stood before an audience of 70 million Americans, two-thirds of the nation's adult population, in the first nationally televised Presidential debate.
This first of four debates held before the end of October gave a national audience the opportunity to see and compare the two candidates, and ushered in a new age of Presidential politics. Kennedy and Nixon participate in the second presidential debate, held in Washington, D. Kennedy vs. Nixon - Second Presidential Debate Nixon met via remote link for the third of four presidential debates prior to the presidential election.
The candidates responded to questions from a panel of correspondents. The debate was moderated by Bill Shadel. Kennedy and Nixon participate in the fourth and final presidential debate in New York. This debate centered on foreign policy. Richard Nixon - Fourth Presidential Debate This is the fourth presidential debate between John F. Kennedy and Richard M. Nixon all over the United States? This is an important campaign and these are important issues which face our country, and I appreciate your coming here.
Prince Bismarck once said that one-third of the students - I guess maybe you better get down there a little - [applause], Prince Bismarck once said that one-third of the students of German universities broke down from overwork, another third broke down from dissipation, and the other third ruled Germany. I do not know which third of the student body of this university is here today, but I am confident I am talking to the rulers of America, in the sense that all educated men and women have the obligation to accept the discipline of self-government.
Nixon and I campaign for the most important office in the free world, but in my judgment this is more than a contest between Mr. Nixon and myself. It is more than a contest between the Republican Party and the Democratic Party. It is a contest between the contented and the concerned, between those who wish to stand still and those who wish to move ahead. Speech of Senator John F.
Kennedy, Chicago Auditorium. Kennedy's popular vote margin is only 0. Nixon won more states, 26 to The presidential election is the first to have both candidates born in the 20th century, and the first in which the two most recently admitted states, Alaska January 3, and Hawaii August 21, , participated. The electoral result proves to be the closest since the presidential election.
This election also features the last time the state of Ohio was on the losing end of the presidential election. From onward, the candidate who won Ohio won the election nationwide. Popular vote: Kennedy 34,, - Nixon 34,, Percentage: Kennedy Electoral vote: Kennedy - Nixon States carried: Kennedy 22 - Nixon Republican presidential candidate Richard Nixon concedes the presidency to Kennedy.
Kennedy Elected, Nixon Concedes Kennedy Acceptance Speech. Hyannis Armory, Hyannis, Massachusetts, November 9, This is a transcription of this speech made for the convenience of readers and researchers. No textual copies of the speech exist at the John F. Kennedy Presidential Library, and this short speech appears to be at least partly extemporaneous.
Because there is no original textual source available to us, efforts have been made to follow John F. Kennedy's spoken words as closely as possible. In some cases this has led to apparent errors, where President-elect Kennedy's grammar becomes somewhat conflicted as he improvises his remarks.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy Jr. Kennedy's second child and first son. President Elect John F. President-elect John F. Kennedy And His Family Kennedy arriving aboard his private plane, with his three year old daughter, Caroline in West Palm Beach, Florida, on Dec. Caroline seems to be pulling her daddy as they head for a waiting car, which will take them to his Palm Beach water front home in Florida.
She peers out rear window of car and looks puzzled at all the excitement going on, in West Palm Beach, Florida, as Kennedy glances at her. They were whisked away from the airport to his Palm Beach home. Eisenhower during the presidential transition. December 7, - November 22, The following 17 pages is an extensive overview because it is the number one motive to assassinated the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy. In Final Judgment, Piper puts forth the number one motive for the assassination of President John Fitzgerald Kennedy; Israel was obsessed on building their covert Dimona nuclear plant , with the aim of obtaining nuclear weapons, and with the proliferation of nuclear weapons being the paramount issue with Kennedy, there was simply no way he was going to let them.
Piper also lays out in detail how the assassination of Kennedy, and the Presidency of Johnson brought about a degree change in the United States policy towards Israel. See the section: Jewish Lobby. Nasser's assessment is supported by intelligence historian Richard Deacon in his book, The Israeli Secret Service Deacon claims that Johnson's new policy was keeping in line not only with Israel's demands but those of Israel's friends in the CIA: 'President Johnson had already swung away from the tentative pro-Arab stance of the Kennedy Administration which had always been frowned upon by the CIA".
Did LBJ dramatically increase aid to Israel? Former Undersecretary of State George Ball commented that, 'The Isreali's were proved right in their assumption that Johnson would be more friendly than Kennedy'. According to author Stephen Green, citing US Agency for International Development data: 'Over the next few years--the first three years of the Johnson administration--the level of foreign aid support to Israel would change both qualitatively and quantitatively.
In JFK's FY , virtually none of the official US assistance was military assistance; it was split almost equally between development loans and food aid under the PL program. This however, was an air defense system. It should be noted that Green's book was written in , tens of billions more military aid has been provided by United States taxpayers to Israel since then.
Media March In May , the U. Senate Committee on Foreign Relations opened an investigation into the covert activities of foreign agents on U. The investigation was prompted by a report from the Chairman of that standing Committee, Senator J. William Fulbright, written in March declassified in , stating: "In recent years there has been an increasing number of incidents involving attempts by foreign governments, or their agents, to influence the conduct of American foreign policy by techniques outside normal diplomatic channels.
The Senate investigation brought to light a money laundering racket through which the Jewish Agency indivisible from the State of Israel and a precursor to the Israeli Government was channeling tens of millions of dollars to the American Zionist Council, the main Israeli lobby in the United States.
Following this investigation, the Department of Justice, under the authority of Attorney General Robert Kennedy, ordered the American Zionist Council to register as "agents of a foreign government," subject to the requirements of the Foreign Agents Registration Act of , involving the close monitoring of its activities.
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In , John Kennedy himself received a financial aid offer from the Israeli lobby for his presidential campaign. Foreign Policy that AIPAC and less prominent pro-Israel lobbies were the main cause of the war in Iraq and, more broadly, the determining factor in the foreign policy of the U. Considering that nothing has changed, there is no reason to believe that the government of Benjamin Netanyahu will not also obtain from the United States the destruction of Iran that it consistently clamors for. His successor Benjamin Netanyahu gave a demonstration of that on May 24, , before the U.
Jerusalem must remain the united capital of Israel. Both houses of Congress offer Benjamin Netanyahu 29 standing ovations US congresspeople got quite the workout on the morning of March 3, To say it was just well received would be to commit the callous crime of understatement. Benjamin Netanyahu Speech to Congress So, who owns our sold out puppet politicians? He was convinced that the spread of nuclear weapons would make the world more dangerous and undermine United States interests. Avener Cohen, Israel and the Bomb.
Israel also use plausible deniability of processing hundreds of nuclear weapons while threatening to use the Samson Option. Israeli leaders created the term in the mids, inspired by the Biblical figure Samson, who destroyed a Philistine temple, killing himself and thousands of Philistine enemies. And despite Israeli nuclear whistle blower Mordechai Vanunu making public smuggled photographs of nuclear weapons and production equipment in the s. Israel now may have as many as atomic and hydrogen nuclear weapons, as well as the ability to launch them via long range missiles, submarines and aircraft.
It can use them in a second strike even if its military is devastated. Mordechai Vanunu has alleged that Israel uses for purposes of blackmail its ability to "bombard any city all over the world, and not only those in Europe but also those in the United States. We have the capability to take the world down with us. And I can assure you that that will happen before Israel goes under. From: Samson Option:. According to the report, the installation contained nuclear bombs, configured for dropping from bombers. Furthermore, five bunkers at the site were cited as capable of safeguarding weapons.
Working up a head of rhetorical steam, Mahoul grandly alleged that three new German-built submarines just purchased by Israel were to be fitted with nuclear weapons. Despite the bristling inventory of nukes, the Israelis have a laudable history of restraint in brandishing, much less using, these most destructive of all weapons of mass destruction. In fact, for most of the latter half of the 20th century, the Israeli Bomb remained invisible and unacknowledged. Seymour M. Hersh, The Samson Option. Joining this treaty would place all of Israel's nuclear facilities under IAEA supervision and subject Israel to more often and thorough evaluations of their nuclear facilities.
Israel began actively investigating the nuclear option from its inception actually the theft of Palestine on May 14, Prime Minister of Israel David Ben-Gurion is said to have been "nearly obsessed" with Israel obtaining nuclear weapons, feeling that a nuclear arsenal was the only way to counter the Arabs' superiority in numbers, space, and financial resources, and that it was the only sure guarantee of Israel's survival. Israel started the construction work at the Dimona nuclear plant sometime in late or early , but amazingly it somehow took the United States intelligence community three years to "discover" the site for what it was, namely, a nuclear site under construction.
This so-called Intelligence failure speaks volumes to power that Israel already possessed over both the United States intelligence and political communities in the late 's. There is no other rational explanation. How could Israel hide everything from the Americans until the Dimona reactor was an established fact?
If you believe that for almost four years, between and , this project was hidden due to intelligence failures in the gathering, analysis and inter-agency coordination of various professionals and political figures in Washington, I have a bridge to sell you. March - January The United States supposedly first became aware of Dimona's existence after U-2 overflights in captured the facility's construction, but it was not identified as a nuclear site until two years later.
Israel continually lied about their clandestine nuclear project in the Negev desert. The complex was variously explained as a textile plant, an agricultural station, and a metallurgical research facility, until David Ben-Gurion stated in December that Dimona complex was a nuclear research center built for "peaceful purposes.
When it comes to the textile factory as cover for the Dimona project, researchers from the National Security Archive dug up its origins in a helicopter ride that American Ambassador Ogden Reid took over the Negev desert in September of Reed asked Addy Cohen of the Israeli Finance Ministry for an explanation for the extensive earthmoving work in the area. Cohen lied, telling Reed it was a textile factory. Finally, on December 7, , an action on the matter was taken by the United States. For the first time Dimona was placed on the table. In response to the blunder concerning the late discovery of Dimona the U.
Intelligence Board USIB asked on December 13, , the CIA to prepare a "detailed post-mortem report on why the intelligence community did not recognize this development [Dimona] earlier. On January 19, , on the eve of his inauguration, President-elect Kennedy visited the White House, for the last time as a guest, along with his senior team. After 45 minutes of one-on-one conversation with President Eisenhower, the two men walked to the Cabinet Room to join their departing and incoming secretaries of state, defense and treasury to discuss the transition.
Herter urged the new president to press hard on inspection in the case of Israel before it introduced nuclear weapons into the Middle East. Reid told Kennedy that an inspection of the Dimona reactor could be arranged, "if it is done on a secret basis.
The memo, and its attached chronology, summarizes the diplomatic exchanges that had taken place between the Eisenhower administration and the Israeli government, saying that "categoric assurances" were obtained from Ben Gurion "that Israel does not have plans for developing atomic weaponry. Israel's ambassador in Washington Avraham Harman attempted to promote a "calming" version of the Dimona project before the Kennedy administration. There is plenty of time and no plutonium, Harman told Jones, seeking to convince him that no reactor would be operating for at least two years.
The Israelis, Harman said, could not conceive why there should be continuing interest in Dimona in the United States or anywhere else. Talk about unabashed chutzpah. Ben Gurion, however, appeared equally determined not to arrange the visit anytime soon. By late March , Ben Gurion realized that he could no longer postpone the visit. Myer Feldman and Abe Feinberg persuaded him that a meeting between him and Kennedy, in return for an American visit to Dimona, was necessary to avoid confrontation and save the Dimona project.
Ben Gurion asked to set such visit to late May and approved the visit to Dimona against the objections of Foreign Minister Meir, who was, apparently, concerned about the implications of misleading or just getting caught doing so the American scientists. Which is just what Israel did, yet again. On March 28, , Assistant Secretary Jones summoned Ambassador Harman to the State Department and told him that the United States had been faithfully waiting since early January for the promised invitation to visit Dimona, yet no such invitation arrived.
He informed the Ambassador that the White House had inquired the previous day when the visit would take place and had requested a report on the matter by 31 March. The American lack of patience with the Israeli delays was evident. Ambassador Harman replied that he had no news about the visit from Jerusalem and doubted whether any action would be possible until after Passover, that is another ten days. The preparations for the visit moved now to the working level. In the end Israel reaffirmed the original arrangement and agreed to receive the two American scientists on May 18, The available record does not explain why Israel wanted to postpone the technical visit after the meeting so one can only propose a plausible speculation.
The Israelis might have thought that the manner in which they would present the Dimona project to the American visits, that is, how much they would reveal about its security aspects, would be dependent on the outcome of discussions between Ben-Gurion and Kennedy, in particular how much room Ben-Gurion would leave to weapons option in his discussions with the Kennedy. It seems that the Israelis did not want to commit Prime Minister Ben-Gurion to a definitive policy line to be determined by the way the reactor presented to the scientists but rather to allow him a certain political latitude for his discussions with Kennedy on the purpose of the Dimona project.
The original report of the American visit to Dimona in May appears to be missing. In essence, the scientists concluded that the reactor "is of the scope and peaceful character previously described to the United States. According to one account by Mossad agent Eitan relayed to British writer Gordan Thomas, among the outlandish schemes used to hide the facility from inspectors was a "bogus control center built over the real one… complete with fake control panels and computer-lined gauges that gave a credible impression of measuring the output of a reactor engaged in an irrigation scheme to turn the Negev into a lush pastureland.
Another version of the "no-nuclear-weapons here" charade was assisted by France, which helped produce video footage of spent reactor fuel being loaded onto French jets, to be supposedly sent to France for reprocessing. The ploy, as reported in the Guardian, was used as evidence by Israel to support its claim that its reactor was not being used to make a bomb. Israeli deceptions to get nuclear weapons knew no ends.
President John F. Kennedy pressured the government of Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion to prevent a military nuclear program, particularly after stage-managed tours of the Dimona facility for U. This collection includes both American and Israeli transcripts of the Waldorf Astoria meeting. One of the transcripts is a previously unknown draft of the Kennedy-Ben-Gurion memcon, which has interesting differences with the final version. The U. The Israeli minutes, prepared by Ambassador Avraham Harman, were also declassified in the s and historians have made extensive use of them.
Ben-Gurion provided Kennedy with a rationale and narrative of the Dimona project that was very similar to what the Israeli hosts provided to the AEC team visiting Dimona albeit in non-technical and more political terms : the Dimona project was peaceful in nature; it was about energy and development.
The prime minister did that by qualifying his peaceful pledge and leaving room for a future change of heart. Ben-Gurion was understood to say something to the effect that the issue of plutonium would not arise until the installation was complete in or so, and only then could Israel decide what to do about processing it. But this appeared to be incompatible with what the prime minister had said to Ambassador Reid in Tel Aviv in January , namely that the spent fuel would return to the country which provided the uranium in the first place France. But Israeli affairs desk officer, William R.
Crawford, who looked further into the record, suggested that what Ben-Gurion had said was more equivocal and evasive. Upon close examination, Ben-Gurion might have meant to hint in passing that Israel was preserving its freedom of action to produce plutonium for its own purposes. Kennedy may not have picked up on this point, but he, like Talbot, may not have been sure exactly what Ben-Gurion had said.
While the visit clearly helped to ease the political and diplomatic tensions between the United States and Israel over Dimona, and removed, at least temporarily, the nuclear issue as a problem from the bilateral agenda, it did not change the opinion of U. In their view, while acknowledging the Israeli official narrative of Dimona as peaceful, it was truly about weapons capability.
If Israel was to produce nuclear weapons it would require technology to reprocess spent fuel into plutonium. Whether and when U. But if the CIA knew about such plans, it may have meant that key information was concealed from AEC scientists who visited Dimona or perhaps they were instructed to locate such facilities. They could not be fully clear — both conceptually and factually — on the nature of the Israeli nuclear commitment, i.
The bottom line was that as early as the CIA already knew — or at least suspected — that the Israeli official account of the Dimona project — either by the prime minister or by Israeli scientists — was a cover story and deceptive by nature. The Kennedy administration held to its conviction that it was necessary to monitor Dimona, not only to resolve American concerns about nuclear proliferation but also to calm regional anxieties about an Israeli nuclear threat. In this context, the United States did not want to continue to be the only country that guaranteed the peaceful nature of Dimona to the Arab countries.
The British also favored such ideas but they sought U. The Kennedy administration believed that IAEA inspections of Dimona were a valid long-term goal but recognized that a second visit by U. This collection includes archival material that sheds light on the second visit. It was hiding in plain sight in a microfilm supplement to the State Department historical series, Foreign Relations of the United States. It turned out that the director was not there, but the chief engineers gave them a minute tour of the reactor.
In President Kennedy was again trying his best to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons. All to no avail, there was nothing but lies about Israel's nuclear weapons capability and there was never any inspections of Dimona. Ben-Gurion felt that Kennedy's position of not wanting Israel to developed nuclear weapons threatened the very survival Israel. The one phenomenon Kennedy feared above all was the proliferation of nuclear weapons on his watch. Albert hammond, jr. Alex c. Ali feat. Ali g. Ali tatyana feat. Alicia keys feat.
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B2k feat. B2k featuring p. The women still made boots, mukluks from caribou fur, which they sewed with dental floss. When we arrived in September, salmon dried on white whalebone racks next to the houses. In November, I joined the ladies and ice-fished on the lagoon, where a woman in her sixties cracked through a foot of ice with an auger. The arctic sky offered the most breathtaking sunsets I have ever seen. The clarity of light, the immensity of the landscape, twilight that lasts for hours. Kivalina lies on a sand spit that juts into the Chukchi Sea. To the east, the De Long Mountains rise.
One night before the sea froze, I walked toward the full moon, which seemed much bigger than even super moons do here. Who could not write a poem about the sea transforming itself into ice cliffs and glimmering statuary, columns, angels, even twenty-foot gargoyles? Or the day the sea ice sang, for the first time in decades, according the villagers? Or the many nights we stopped halfway home on a crusted snowdrift hill and watched the Aurora Borealis, that flaming blanket of light that shook over the world?
Well, I have not yet written those poems, but will. Unfortunately, now Kivalina is in grave danger of disappearing from climate change. Certainly, it will have to relocate in the next few years; I hope I will not have to write an elegy for it. The second major event that altered my worldview was motherhood. Talk about a life-altering experience! Also, experiencing how hard it is to care for and make decisions about dependent beings made me understand my parents more, and to be more compassionate with people in general.
Empathy builds good poems. Children make language live again for you. At three or four, nearly every child speaks like a poet. A rich earthy scent, both vegetable and mineral, flaxen like corn. Briefly, one final experience: we lived in Indonesia for a year, a vastly different culture. In that beautiful island nation speaking another language expanded my viewpoint, my sense of the world, and a sense of the importance of each word.
Two experiences changed how I looked at the world that year. The first was the day a female orangutan in a nature preserve on the island of Borneo draped her long arm around my waist and shoulder and, in exchange for letting me go, received an extra snack from the trundle truck that the helpers rolled through the jungle. But mostly, even then, I felt a deep connection to a member of another species. I knew she would not hurt me. The other experience was walking on a nature path when a group of young women strolled by.
Through their eyes, I discovered that in some cultures, people prefer to walk beside a vivid green padi with a friend on each arm, sharing stories and laughter. It looks over the front yard at the pampas grass and the elm and Japanese maple we planted and at the bald spot where the huge maple that died from drought used to soar. After a year, I still miss that tree every single day. Since the early 80s, when my husband dragged me into the computer age, I compose by typing. Good because my handwriting is nearly unreadable. But sometimes I wake in the dark and try to draft something in a notebook.
With luck I can translate snippets of it in the morning. And sometimes they actually jump-start a poem. Prompts seldom interest me except for the age-old one, of Webster-diving. But I confess: I cheat often. Nausea and tergiversate I can barely spell let alone use in a poem. Call me an undisciplined writer, but one always in the process of reforming. Please describe that form and why you are drawn to it. Many contemporary poets include haibun in their collections. A haibun combines prose--often, heightened, similar to that of prose poetry--and haiku. Usually, a haibun closes with a haiku, but one or more can be found anywhere in the haibun.
The haiku should not complete the prose or repeat it in another form but take it in another direction. Why do I write them? Because they combine the exploratory nature of the essay with the heightened prose of the prose poem. Because they originated in a country, Japan, where people live their lives attuned to nature and beauty.
Because you can write about any subject in them and use many forms--letter, travel journal, biography, conversation, or even prayer. Some even substitute poems for what were traditionally the prose sections. Because they are usually small, though Basho wrote a whole book of them, and you can finish one in an afternoon though it will never be perfect or even necessary. What poetry project are you currently working on? Putting a manuscript together. Writing new poems. Trying to become at least somewhat competent in the centuries-old form of haiku.
To succeed in capturing the world in eleven to eighteen syllables, I find a very challenging struggle. Mary Oliver--because she looks deeply at the world and describes it in jewels of language, easily understood. These nature poems expand beyond nature to also show us our human foibles, problems and hallelujahs. In each line she incorporates the world of the senses. She watches nature for hours.
She brings you to that pond or wood on Cape Cod, sits your smack down on a grassy bank and lends you her eyes, her beautiful sensibility, her questing mind, her knowledge of animals, vegetables, minerals, and especially humans. I was struck by the wonderful turnout and how everything was so well planned. What is the most important advice you can give to someone wanting to set up a public poetry reading? Talk it up! Share your excitement. Get the word out.
Find a partner. The Writers Guild in Bloomington is always game for more programs, and they advertise for you also.
Events in Lanarkshire in August 19
Gather a list of contacts of folks who love literature. Use social media. Buy snacks. Invite people you know personally with a phone call or by mentioning it when you see them. Pray that B-town has not invited some great musical act, comedian, or world-class speaker that same night. Or that the Hoosiers will play B-ball against—well against anybody.
What are three of your favorite places in Monroe County? In Monroe County, Lake Griffy tops the list. To visit the park in the early morning is to watch the world born anew: spider webs glimmer on the grass, reeds rustle in the wind, and as the rising sun spills rose over the lake, the heron begins her one-legged fishing on the far side. Griffy has it all: beauty, hiking trails, canoes to rent and acres and acres of forest.
On a knockout spring or fall day, the preserve gets very crowded, but if you time your visit you can find solitude and solace there. My favorite Griffy memory is the night my daughter, who was still in high school and having a difficult time, suggested we hike a nearly two-mile trail barefoot. My feet learned to recognize the slight rise of a big root and its fall on the other side. At the beginning of the hike, I opened my eyes wider and wider. Griffy has gifted me with several poems but more importantly the serenity into which to compose them.
Yesterday, as Mr. Darcy jumped into the car after a hike and we headed over the bridge, a heron rose from the lakefront just before us and flew into the sky, rising higher and higher. It gifted us with a poetic, aha moment. Kivalina, Alaska, aerial view. Menes www. They not only make the world a more fascinating place, they reveal aspects of ourselves we may otherwise be blind to. Griffy Lake at sunset by Doris Lynch. Why such gloom? Murky skies lift our spirits. When buzzards roost on rooftops, we see Dominicans, tonsured and aquiline, wings clasped in penance.
We are Latins, not yeoman yanquis. Those plain churches in your cherished Chesapeake Bay are mere hovels to us. We prefer overwrought facades, garish bell towers, rituals rich with condiment. Gilded altars rouse our faith, candles titillate, incense makes us so giddy we can crawl on cobbles as if plush pillows. Transubstantiation is gobbledygook, but I do understand yeast. Not the wild kind that breeds in cauldrons of dank air; I mean the bloom, that soft, white powder on black grapes before they get squeezed to must then vinify in casks of Calvary.
My yeast comes from merlots plump as fish eyes I keep safe from molds in a tin tabernacle, my paschal oven by the altar stone where I bongo the dough, roll the loaf, three taps on the rump. Sanctus, sanctus, sanctus. Even Judas gets a ginger effigy. Yeast is all you need to raise the dead. I grew up the beggar of seeds, almsgiver to strays, then was by chance apprenticed to a barber but bungled combing, inept at leeching, loose with razors. Misfortune was my blessing. How else could I have become your Bishop of Brooms, my crosier that sweeps away the sins of the world, my miter the do-rag I wear to scrub naves.
Jesus favors the lowly laborer, bruised of knee, rickety boned. The rich are wrong to think they will go to Heaven. Their gold offerings evaporate to dross, their pleas drain like water through limestone. Give thanks to Our Lord for linty purses, empty cupboards, calloused soles. A widow with ten kids, she has skin like olives Brined, jute hair, gaunt eyes, yet her bony hips Are lithe as twigs on wet tamarind leaves.
Oxen get sold for gifts, fields die, kids starve. Smoke floods the fields. Bells peal. Sand like raw sugar blows from Gabon, burying creek and aqueduct alike, even agaves wither in tin-can gardens, and the women of Angel Hill make do with shortages more numerous than bristles on a pig. No meat today? They grind plantain peels or pickle mop rags. No soap? I wait in darkness, sitting on an oxhide chair, smell of sinew, tallow. Cowrie shells augured exile. Few listened. Knees buckle, fingers claw my wrist. I lay him on a mattress stained by urine, wilted clippings of Fidel glued to bedposts.
Stroke scarred hands, arms as if touch could heal a lifetime cutting cane in the sun. Brings cafecito, chicory coffee, tepid, bilgy water, raspy dregs. I swallow to be polite. One sepia print shows a girl switching a mule, Cuca at twelve, looking stern because teeth had grown crooked on the cobs. Tall as royal palms, smokestacks spew ghosts of the sugar harvest; dismembered, Soviet tractors rot in sheds, corrugated tin.
Boys playing baseball chase me across the yucca thickets. On these rutted canefields I trip over pits of memory, red dust stinging my eyes, I the bearer of dollars, false promises. Chirping, whistling--teeth like broken bottles-- Ofelia unknots legs, arms that danced high branches of el caucho , weeping wood. I tweeze the blow dart, whittled bird bone. I run away, hide under her iron bed. Ofelia slices. The eyes, rubied by fire, terrify me. Cinnamon aureoles prick my finger.
Ofelia pulls me, whimpering back to the chair. Her legs scissor me, arms constrict. This morning the cold sea-mist shrouds all of Lima; black vultures perch like gargoyles on rusted neon signs. They formed a line, passing around a furry bowie knife. Go back to Cuba, the chorus taunted. We hate the Spanish. Indigo snake coiled about his wrist, Marcus hissed, snarled, telling my father to kiss his ass. Stars and Stripes flying from car antennas, hate signs taped to windows, Anglos fled to rural Manatee and Osceola, some journeying as far north a Alachua, Apalachicola Bay, Blackwater River; and County Line Road, a strip of gravel and sticks, the new border dividing America from America.
How has your Latino background influenced who you are as a poet? Had the Cuban Revolution not taken place and thereafter succeeded in altering Cuba in the most extreme and sinister ways possible I am no apologist for the Castros , I would have been born in Cuba and been raised on that island. It was a fluke that an Eastern European man, an Ashkenazi Jew who had somehow escaped the Holocaust and settled in Lima, Peru, but who loved traveling to Havana for reasons I do not know, proposed to my father, an upholsterer by trade apparently they had met at some bar in Havana , that he manage his newly opened furniture factory in Lima.
The year was My father and mother had just gotten married. After leaving for Lima, my mother followed him, already pregnant with me, so I was conceived in Havana and then born in Lima. My parents did not adjust well to Lima: its climate, its culture, its history, etc. Therefore, we returned to Cuba in , and I was baptized in Varadero.
Soon after my father started his own furniture business, and in just a few years amassed quite a fortune, so we ended up being rather privileged in this South American city. My sister, my brother, and I studied in a British academy. We lived in a chalet in the suburbs. We traveled to Europe. The year was , and I was ten years old. History would judge them right. Though my father had managed to take out of Peru a good chunk of money, bad investments, bad decisions, and just plain bad luck would result by in near bankruptcy. My father went from prosperous businessman to being the owner of a small workshop in Hialeah making kitchen cabinets.
My father and mother divorced, and I was on my own by age You might say that my family went from rags to riches and then back to rags. I think it is important for readers to know my trajectory through these different countries, in particular because my poems and short stories at least until now have been so preoccupied with investigating the complex relationship between place and culture, place and history, place and memory.
I prefer not to use the term Latino to fully define my family heritage or family culture. Being specific about place and culture is more accurate, I believe. Because of our current national discourse on identity, Latino is unfortunately much too generic, much too overextended, much too circumscribed by politics. We need to think of Latinos as a large and complex family of cultures, languages, and peoples in which unity and difference should be equally celebrated.
Now let us talk of my own particular family. Although my parents were born in Cuba, their fathers were immigrants from Spain who ended up marrying Cuban women. I was thus raised with Spanish customs, Spanish mores, Spanish foods. So we had a strong and unbreakable connection to Spain as the Mother Country. Nonetheless, I have made it my mission to explore and give homage to the various cultures that make Cuba and Peru distinctly American, distinctly cross-cultural, distinctly multiethnic.
It is a blessing that the imagination has allowed me to go beyond the limitations of my upbringing. Could you elaborate on this aspect of your work? As a writer, as a teacher, and as an ordinary human being, I believe profoundly in giving justice to those who have suffered socially, economically, spiritually, etc. I suppose I very much believe that grace, if we define it as something divine, dwells in the world of the living, this complicated world of the mortal body and the immortal spirit. When did you first start writing poetry and what drew you to that art form? It is a long and convoluted story, full of false starts and auspicious beginnings, full of doubt and stubborn hope, full of mentors and detractors—all very messy, very turbulent.
I was drawn to the rhapsodic voices of Yeats, Blake, Crane, Rilke, etc. It was their musical language that inspired me, their copious imaginations that mesmerized me: words and imagination wed together. Could you give us some background on your father and his influence on your approach to writing?
My father made me work for my money, which meant I had to help him at that workshop in Hialeah. I was angry. I was rebellious. I even disparaged his manual labor. Whatever he taught me I rejected. Nevertheless, his reverence for craft, his indomitable work ethic, have resonated with me over the years.
As I work with words, just as he worked with wood and cloth, I find meaning in my life. Sometimes we can gain the insight maybe through just sheer luck to overcome our youthful stupidities. I was glad that I did. Who are some poets who have had a great impact on you?
The first poets to have had a tremendous impact on me poets who inspired me to write were W. Yeats, William Blake, T. Eliot, Hart Crane, and Galway Kinnell. Thereafter I found further inspiration, further sustenance, in the poetry and in the prose of Wallace Stevens, Derek Walcott, and Alejo Carpentier. One Cuban-American poet who also laid a path for my vocation, though he may not know it, is Ricardo Pau-Llosa. I am also indebted to my mentor Michael Anania who directed my creative dissertation at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Without these writers I would not be who I am. Is there a particular poem that has been a touchstone for you? Why has this poem been so important to you? What do you feel is the most helpful advice you can give your student poets? I do agree with Rainer Maria Rilke that a young poet should be drawn to this vocation because of necessity, and this necessity has to be internal. Write poems because if you do not write poems you feel dislocated, unbalanced, and incomplete. Your poetic vocation needs to be integrated into your life, needs to be organically derived from your life, needs to be harmonized with your body, your mind, and your heart.
Devote yourself to craft, surrender yourself to the discipline of revision, take personal and artistic risks, find a refuge for yourself in this vast and bewildering world. Please name three of your favorite places in Indiana. I like Indianapolis, which reminds of Chicago where I lived for seven years.
There is also Amish country e.
Poetry Features - Shari Wagner
Plus South Bend where I live now and where my son Adrian was born. Above all, I cherish how decent and good-natured the people of Indiana have been since I moved here in As a volunteer with the local Writers Guild, she coordinates a reading series and works with others to offer free poetry workshops to the public. To give back to the writing community at-large, she reviews poetry books and interview poets at the blog Poetry Matters , as well as on her blog.
She has a bachelor's degree in Electrical Engineering Technology and an MBA, worked as an electrical engineer, software consultant and project manager, and more recently earned an MFA. She works in Research Technologies at Indiana University. In the interview that follows these poems, Nancy Chen Long describes the events that led her to enroll in an MFA program and says, " I love it when such episodes of surprise and synchronicity interject themselves into my life. It gives me a sense of hope and possibility, a reminder that anything can happen, that little in life is truly locked in.
Nancy's faith in synchronicity is also striking in her chapbook, Clouds as Inkblots For the War Prone. In these "found" poems, Nancy links up with a war novel by James Gould Cozzens--using only words she finds in its pages. She describes this unique process in her interview. Nancy's poems are impressive at every level. Imagery, music, grace of line, insight, epiphany. No, no, no! In her mouth, a stick. A Fine Meal i. A fine Chinese meal, my mother told me, is made of five flavors, a blending of elemental portions.
What is sour , she said, if not the flesh of plum? How simple, salt , she said, and how necessary, married as she is to water. Child, proceed lightly with bitter , she warned. Who has not known its pinch? Cooling to the heart, it favors full sun, its joy in fire. Lastly, two kisses of sweet. Embrace all five, she said. Repudiate not one. A fine Irish meal, my father told me, is a made thing, constructed with care, like the spire of a skyscraper or the precision of a cesium beam concocted from what is available like the shard of blue limestone, jagged in your hand and those mounds of cool moss, lush underfoot.
Star seltzer effervescing across your tongue, some nexus of intuition. But So Beautiful, Yes? Mahalia Jackson? Inflamed The man at our table, his insistence last night--how the color red will conjure up feelings of rage, as if to see red is to see rage. Rage, a simple slip in- to those familiar ways of being. Dare we break them? You want to--the way you broke that flawless Lalique vase you thought so rare in its redness, smashed against your mother's antique vanity, crystalline no more. Your grandmother's face, helpless to stop you, drained of color, save her pencil-thin lips glossed in red--like the red of that northern cardinal you're always searching for.
Look-- lucky you! Such a bird is lighting right now onto the lower branch of this sweet gum tree next to our bench in the park. See how it disappears in the autumnal- red star-shaped leaves? I like how the cool nip of the biting wind reddens the apple of your cheeks. Is it too cold for you? Oh, you and your fascination with red. Here, sip this red rooibos tea. It'll fire up the caverns of your heart, ruby like Santa's suit in that photo, when we were in Florida, fake snow, fake tree with all red lights, flashing, spin, spin, flashing red lights of the ambulance that Christmas our child was taken to the emergency room, so tiny on the gurney.
No one dies of scarlet fever. You asked for a sign. Remember your father's words? It will be fair weather, for the sky is red. So true, the sanguine sky that night, but all I could think about was the rusty dust of Mars, whether heaven was a scarlet desert with polar ice caps.
At least we could pick out the planet from among the others. How lucky that it is so visible, lucky us, lucky red, lucky like me, nubile bride in a crimson dress, gift-wrapped in red, the bittersweet door to our house, lucky--your birth, my birth, our child's. So let us wave our red flag of complicity.
Yes, tonight let us sip our favorite aperitif. Like that Campari, we also have dark-red bitters and secrets, we who carol of luck and of splendid weather, we who sing with rage in our throats. Dugong i. Once, in Thailand, there was a young wife who had a vigorous affection for seagrass fruit. As her cravings escalated, she wandered each day deeper into the sea, lingered longer in the buoyant brine. One day she didn't come home. Her husband, steadfast, searched for her until the night that she visited him in a dream, saying she could never return to land.
Now half woman, half fish, she met her beloved one final time, then returned forever to water. And when he saw me abruptly thrust my head out of water, gasp for air, and turn to ripple back, deeper into the sea, I know he lost sight of me. We studied Gauguin. While everyone else was taken in by his use of color and image after image of nude Tahitian beauties, I couldn't stop staring at his wife Mette, embroidering. I'd seen it before, as a painting of a woman in obedient domesticity. Now, she was a wife in situ, posing while her husband withheld the sun to blot out her face.
He rendered her featureless. She became more mask, a quiet interruption in the wallpaper. Instead of needlepoint, I started to imagine that she would have wanted to leave, stroll down the banks of the Seine, smolder along the soot-like evening, reclaiming that textured glow some of us feel as we fall under the whitewash of summer. I scarcely glanced at the other paintings, those fine features of Tehamana-- the Tahitian who became, at fourteen, mother of Gauguin's youngest son, whom he named Emile, after his oldest son Emile, who lived in France with Mette.
The day Mette learned of his pubescent other-bride must have been trauma, the way it is when you learn of a husband's lover, the way it is when a girl comes to your home on a Sunday afternoon in August while you're outside gardening and you think it odd that the dog seems to know her as he trots up the driveway to greet her, and the weight of summer humidity has caused you to be slushed in sweat and you smile politely as she approaches.
Forget that you told him "I can teach you to fly. It should have been winter.
Taking Aim: Daring to Be Different, Happier, and Healthier in the Great Outdoors by Eva Shockey
He should have aligned himself with hurricanes, to sweep across the channel, instead, impressed by the red lip of the sun, to fritter with a faint pop or two, fall alone into a pool of silent light. Clouds as Inkblots For the War Prone Consider the earth as more than a speck in the night, sky more than chalk on a warboard. Consider a swarm, thick, an advancing cloud. Perhaps to the stouter brain, such darkness becomes a far-off foe, slight, with no more than spit enough to swallow.
To the hair-triggered eye, it may be the fog of four thousand fighters in flight, each with a finger touch, light like the broken angel's wing. We know all gunners spit flame. So let the swarm be a rush of bees. Let it be a bevy of starlings, birds beyond number, newly fledged. Let it be a bright mission of men, our familiars, not yet thunderborne, their groomed young faces never to want for a kickstorm of lead, never to bore-in once more unto the breach, for God and country, for flying pay, with a command of death and a gladness to kill.
Japanese Home Islands During one passing moment under the pine-soaked sun, the Old Man carefully tore a corner from the fabric of his war-memory, a little piece of the Japanese mission--a patch with one small island and its unforeseen barn. An island with a garden, some old chickens and a barn, a house that didn't amount to much and the lone woman who lived there milking her cows one morning years ago. Under the blare of the sun, the barn mistaken for a shed.
His training run, target practice on sheds. The old woman and her barn. The wrong island and a bomb. Accidental ammunition. The old general pressed the torn-fabric piece into a prayer, placed it into the wing of a passing crane on her way home after winter. An Interview with Nancy Chen Long Nancy, an exploration of identity and its transmutations seems to be a theme throughout your new book, Light into Bodies.
First, Shari, thank you so much for featuring my work on Through the Sycamores. Most people that I know grapple with issues of identity at some point in their life, if not for their entire lives. The poems in your chapbook, Clouds as Inkblots for the War Prone , were created through techniques you describe as remix, erasure, and collage.
What did that process involve and why were you drawn to it? Found poetry can be thought of as a literary equivalent of collage, in which words, phrases and lines from existing texts are refashioned into new poems. It includes centos, erasure poetry, cut-up poetry, collage, remix and other textual combinations. For the Pulitzer Remix project, eighty-five poets were selected and assigned a Pulitzer Prize-winning work of fiction.
Pulitzer Remix was my first and so far, only major attempt at found poetry. While I used erasure and collage to create a few of the poems, my primary method was remix : I took an arbitrary selection of a source text, for example the first paragraph of each page in a chapter, and then scrambled it, mixing and rearranging some of the words from that selection. First I separated all of the words out of the text so that they were not in context.
Next, using the computer programs mentioned earlier, I created two lists, one in which the words were alphabetized in a single column and another that was randomized with the words scattered in rows across the page. I selected words from those two lists to make the first draft poem. The randomized list helped trigger my imagination as my eye scanned unrelated words and my mind tried to make connections.
In addition to the word lists, I allowed myself to use words that were not in the selection, but that could be discovered by concatenation e. I kept detailed notes so that I could adequately cite the source text, which is important for these sorts of poems. I read that you wanted to pursue an MFA in Creative Writing when you were a teenager but were counseled to pursue science instead.
The way it came about is a study of chance and synchronicity for me. Back at a point in my life when I was under a great deal of stress in both my career and family life, Cynthia Bretheim , my massage therapist at the time who has since become a friend, suggested I attend a writing session at Women Writing for a Change Bloomington. When she mentioned it, she had no idea of my love of language, of what writing and poetry meant to me. I signed up for an evening class.
It was magical. The program is focused more on the process of writing rather completing a polished product such as a poem or story. We wrote in response to poems, guided meditations, prompts that unearthed memory, etc. I was in the middle of pursuing an M. At that same time, Earlham coincidentally offered a poetry class as part of their Writing-as-Ministry emphasis.
Her support and encouragement were crucial and resulted in a change in attitude: I started to take my writing seriously. It was during one of those classes that I decided to pursue an MFA. Students then complete the semester through distance education, working with a professor using phone, email, snail mail and online methods, depending on the school and mentor preferences. The Spalding program is exemplary. It was one of the best decisions I ever made.
All of this happened within a year-and-half—fairly quickly. I love it when such episodes of surprise and synchronicity interject themselves into my life. Do you find that your science and math training affect your approach to poetry in any way? Science and math actually, anything I am interested in or study or spend my time doing wiggles its way into my writing. Also, I find that science, math and poetry play off of one another like steel balls in the pinball machine of my brain.
Even though there are differences, science, math and poetry do have some things in common. For example, each one is a way of understanding.