It is intended as an atlas for day-to-day use in the research laboratory to identify macroscopic and microscopic structures in the human brain as collected in research data with a variety of methods. It will also be particularly useful for the interpretation of magnetic resonance imaging data. The atlas includes a DVD with not only the atlas in electronic format, providing electronic versions of drawings and photographs to facilitate use of atlas contents with researchers' own material, but also 3D visualisation software that allows easy browsing of the images, and a feature to allow direct retrieval of brain areas using coordinates obtained in magnetic resonance imaging.
It takes into account the advances in computer-assisted brain-imaging techniques that do not restrict the plane of study and the recent progress in identifying and localizing putative neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in the brain. New sections offer coronal views of the gross brain and brain stem, biochemical neuroanatomy, magnetic resonance images, and recent computerized tomographic scans.
In addition, many refinements have been made in the illustrations retained from earlier editions.
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As before, only the highest quality photomicrographs have been included. The Gross Brain and Spinal Cord 2. The identification of the parts of the central amygdaloid nucleus Ce in the marmoset is in part hindered by the nomenclature for the subnuclei that are used in primate atlases Stephan et al.
The marker stains offer a clue to the solution of this problem. There is a similarly negative area in the marmoset and in the rhesus monkey, but it has been named the lateral subnucleus in the rhesus monkey Paxinos et al. The most likely explanation is that the homologue of the central nucleus has, at least in part, been misidentified as the lateral nucleus in primates. Examination of AChE sections in the rhesus monkey atlas of Paxinos et al.
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It is possible that the stained area in the rhesus is in fact the homologue of the rat CeL, whereas the unstained area represents the rat CeC. In the marmoset, the unstained area in AChE sections appears to be present in both rostral and caudal levels, but there is a small stained area lateral to it, which could represent the rat CeL.
The stained area medial to this unstained region in the marmoset can reasonably be named the homologue of the rat CeM.
The area named the ventral cortical nucleus of the amygdala in the marmoset and rhesus monkey seems likely, on the basis of its relationships, to represent the areas named the posteromedial PMCo and posterolateral PLCo cortical nuclei of the rat not shown here. There is a suggestion of such a band in the marmoset, but its appearance is not as striking as in the rat. The major amygdaloid nuclei in the marmoset can be confidently identified on the basis of the panel of markers, but it is important to acknowledge that this does not solve all the questions of identity in the amygdaloid region.
A number of these issues will be discussed in this section. The first of these issues is the question of the nucleus of the lateral olfactory tract LOT.
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LOT is a prominent nucleus in rodents, but was not identified in the rhesus monkey atlas of Paxinos et al. In rodents, LOT is a three-layered cortical area separating the anterior amygdaloid area AA and the medial nucleus Me medially from the anterior cortical amygdala ACo laterally.
It is therefore not surprising that Stephan et al. Given the apparent absence of an accessory olfactory bulb in simian primates, and the inconclusive status of LOT, it is not surprising that we have been unable to identify this nucleus in the marmoset. On the contrary, Paxinos et al. This question clearly needs more data before it can be resolved. In primates, a prominent nucleus named the paralaminar nucleus PaL consists of a sheet of cells applied to the ventral surface of the amygdala, and separating the basolateral nucleus from the white matter of the underlying entorhinal cortex.
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There is no obvious candidate for a homologue of this nucleus in the rat. The nucleus may be an extension of the lateral nucleus of the amygdala. While this brief exercise has emphasised the consistency of staining when rat and marmoset are compared, the relative intensity of staining is not always the same in the two species. This is not surprising because similar differences in staining intensity using this panel of markers exist between the rat and the mouse.
Background & Summary
These findings, combined with supplementary data from the remaining markers, make it possible to identify all of the major amygdaloid nuclei in the marmoset. The nuclear delineations using this technique will provide valuable guidelines for future hodological and electrophysiological studies. The use of a panel of markers is likely to be of most use in forebrain areas that are made up of a large number of cell groups, each with different characteristics, such as the thalamus, hypothalamus, bed nucleus of stria terminalis.
However, we have also found this method to be of great value in identifying homologues among midbrain and hindbrain nuclei. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. We thank Max Hobbs for assistance with the formatting of images. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Journal List Front Hum Neurosci v. Front Hum Neurosci. Published online Feb Prepublished online Dec 9.
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Charles R. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Reviewed by: John I. Received Oct 29; Accepted Feb 3. This is an open-access article subject to an exclusive license agreement between the authors and the Frontiers Research Foundation, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original authors and source are credited.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Brain mapping has relied on a small number of routine chemical stains for many decades.